IUB ANAT-A 215 - integumentary system (3 pages)

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integumentary system



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integumentary system

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Pages:
3
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Anat-A 215 - Basic Human Anatomy
Basic Human Anatomy Documents
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INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM I Introduction A Integument covering skin largest organ of the body B Integumentary system Skin Exocrine glands Hair Nails associated nerves associated blood vessels II Layers of the Integument A Epidermis epi on derma skin 1 2 3 4 Outer layer Composed of Keratinized Stratified Squamous epithelium Avascular Thick skin 5 layers Thin skin 4 layers B Dermis 1 Middle layer 2 Composed of dense irregular and areolar connective tissues 3 Contains nerve endings hair follicles glands 4 Dermal papillae projections of the dermis into the epidermis Subcutaneous layer hypodermis superficial fascia not considered part of the integument Below dermis Stores fat and anchors upper layers to other tissues Composed of areolar CT and adipose CT III Layers of Epidermis A Stratum Basale single layer of columnar cuboidal cells resting on the basement membrane cells are very mitotic B Stratum Spinosum several layers of polygonal shaped cells with spines Small degree of mitosis here C Stratum Granulosum 3 5 layers of flattened cells with visible granules cells undergo keratinization here keratinization the process by which the nucleus shrivels up cell dies and cell fills up with the protein keratin D Stratum Lucidum 2 3 layers of dead anucleated keratinized clear cells only found in thick skin E Stratum Corneum 20 30 layers of dead keratinized anucleated cells cornified brittle hardened outer cells are constantly shed IV Cells of the Epidermis 1 Keratinocytes most numerous found in all layers produce keratin 2 Melanocytes 2nd most numerous found in the stratum basal with processes extending into the stratum spinous produce melanin 3 Tactile Cells 3rd most numerous found only in the stratum basale provide information regarding tactile light touch sensation 4 Epidermal Dendritic Cells 4th most numerous found primarily in the stratum spinous phagocyte V Layers of the Dermis A Papillary Layer uppermost composed of areolar C T and dermal papillae contains blood vessels sensory receptors neurons portions of the ducts of glands and hair roots B Reticular Layer deepest composed of primarily dense irregular C T contains blood vessels sensory receptors neurons secretory portions of glands hair follicles ducts of glands VI Epidermal Derivatives Skin Appendages A Hair 1 3 parts bulb root and shaft 2 Arrector pili muscle 3 Function protect from sun damage and trauma Also for heat retention B Nails 1 Formed from stratum corneum dead keratinized cells 2 Function protection and grasping C Exocrine glands 1 Sebaceous glands Oil sebum glands a associated with hair follicles b Functions soften the skin is bactericidal 2 Sweat sudoriferous glands a Merocrine i found everywhere ii Releases perspiration sweat for thermoregulation b Apocrine i Axillary and pubic regions ii Secretes onto hair roots iii Releases odorous secretions called pheromones Other Skin Glands 1 Ceruminous glands cerumen earwax a modified sweat glands b in external auditory canal c cerumen can trap foreign particles and small insects and it helps to keep the eardrum soft 2 Mammary glands a modified sweat glands b produce milk Which of the following cells is found only in the stratum basale and is a light touch receptor a Keratinocyte b Fibrocyte c Epidermal Dendritic Cell d Tactile Cell e Melanocyte


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