TAMU COSC 254 - Cosci 254 Exam 2 Review FINAL (31 pages)

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Cosci 254 Exam 2 Review FINAL



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Cosci 254 Exam 2 Review FINAL

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Pages:
31
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Cosc 254 - Const Matrls & Methds Ii
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Cosci 254 Exam 2 Review BOOK NOTES Pg 248 255 Sustainability and MasterFormat Division 5 Metals The first known metals were those found in nature such as gold and silver Later other metals probably discovered accidentally were obtained by melting ores The first relatively hard metals produced were mostly copper alloys such as brass and bronze Copper used in roofing flashing piping wiring and in the manufacture of equipment Copper alloys used to manufacture doors and their frames windows door and window hardware cladding panels plumbing fixtures and for many decorative purposes In modern construction it is impossible to construct a building using no metal products Products made from iron steel aluminum copper bronze lead alloys of these metals and other metals are contained in a large number of building components ranging from those forming the underlying structure to those in the shell Masonry structures contain metal reinforcements anchors and fasteners Concrete structures are reinforced with steel Wood framing is held together with metal nails lag bolts and screws Finishes are hung on metal furring and framing In addition to the use of steel and iron in structural systems ferrous metals are used in many other building products For example Ferrous metal components are used in roofing siding cladding and flashing Both structural and nonstructural Ferrous standing seam metal roofing have a long history of use in several styles These products offer a broad choice of finishes and coatings for durability texture and color Aluminum Aluminum which was not produced until the nineteenth century is another common metal in most of today s buildings Aluminum used to make cladding panels storefronts curtain walls doors and their frames windows siding roofing flashing wiring piping railings hardware and many other products Both steel and aluminum siding in traditional clapboard designs as well as vertical and other patterns are increasingly popular products Wall panel systems cladding often in combination with lightweight steel framing are used in many types of buildings today Stainless steel is used for flashing and carbon steel sheets are used in composite flashing Many types and styles of metal exterior and interior doors are available Steel doors provide fire safety security durability and dimensional stability Modern exterior swinging steel doors contain an insulating core surrounded by steel skins and sides Designs range from smooth flush faces to variations with glazing moldings textured surfaces and vinyl laminations Metal windows offer a complete range of designs for residential commercial and institutional uses Steel products used in interior finishes include non load bearing studs and furring components as well as acoustical ceilings and wall panels Non load bearing studs and furring members provide non combustible dimensionally stable framing and furring for gypsum wallboard plaster and other interior surfaces Steel acoustical ceilings are found in many types of buildings sometimes as an integral part of a steel deck floor and ceiling system Metals are used to make ornamental building components such as railings and handrails panels and ornamentation The following are a few of the many other steel products used in buildings Steel pan concrete filled stairs Spiral stairs Fixed ladders Prefabricated fireplaces and flues Laboratory kitchen and other cabinets Unit kitchens Roof accessories skylights stacks ventilators roof hatches etc Loose lintels Aluminum and steel are also used in the following products Gratings and stair treads Rainwear flashing gutters and downspouts Roof accessories skylights stacks ventilators roof hatches etc Gratings Floor plates Sidewalk hatches Access doors Loose lintels Various castings Iron steel extensively used in plumbing fixtures and piping hot water and steam piping radiators valves and accessories and in heating and cooling ductwork Plumbing ware includes both cast iron and sheet steel products such as tubs shower and tub enclosures toilets bidets and sinks These are often finished in porcelain enamel Stainless steel is widely used for kitchen laboratory and bar sinks The mechanical and electrical systems that we have cannot function without metals Sheet steel ductwork galvanized for corrosion resistance is part of most heating and cooling systems that employ moving air These systems have fans vents louvers and other sheet steel accessories Electrical systems have many steel and iron elements These steel and iron elements include panel and junction boxes conduit outlet boxes outlet boxes and outlets and many others Sustainability Considerations Because the mining of raw materials and manufacturing of metal products consume large amounts of energy and contribute to disruption and are damaging to the environment Sustainability becomes a major consideration when deciding to use steel aluminum and other metals in any particular circumstance 97 5 of structural steel is recycled LEED credits can be earned if steel is used to obtain LEED certification on that building If proper paperwork cannot be provided an automatic assumption of 25 of the steel used is considered recycled Steel is sustainable but not renewable Iron Iron based metal alloys are referred to as ferrous metals Pure iron is weak and ductile but wrought iron is strong enough for construction purposes It has been used for centuries for bridges buildings and other structures Many irons and steels get their strength from adding carbon If too much is added it becomes too brittle to shape and are cast into molds instead This is called cast iron Pig Iron ingots Iron Ore mined from ground Coke fuel made of coal Air and Water Flux limestone to separate impurities Alloys for desired qualities if needed Smelted to create ingots aka pig iron for further processing Steel takes more than 19 000 Btus British thermal units to produce 1 lb of steel from ore For a ton of steel to be produced it requires 3 200 lb of ore 300 lb of limestone 900 lb of coke Coke fuel Made from coal Has its own cost in energy of production Some alloying metals that are used to produce various types of steel are running low High grade iron ore is also being rapidly depleted This depletion increases the cost of obtaining high quality raw materials The manufacturing of steel products produces large quantities of pollutants that must be captured to prevent their release into the environment Production of 1 ton of steels impact on


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