UA BSC 114 - CH. 20 Notes- BSC 114 (3 pages)

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CH. 20 Notes- BSC 114



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CH. 20 Notes- BSC 114

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Pages:
3
School:
University of Alabama
Course:
Bsc 114 - Principles of Biology I

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CH 20 DNA Tools and Biotechnology The DNA Toolbox o Recently the genome sequences of two extinct species Neanderthals and wooly mammoths have been completed o Advances in sequencing techniques make genome sequencing increasingly faster and less expensive o Biotechnology is the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products o The applications of DNA technology affect everything from agriculture to criminal law to medical research o The complementarity of the two DNA strands is the basis for nucleic acid hybridization the base pairing of one strand of nucleic acid to the complementary sequence on another strand o Genetic engineering is the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes DNA Sequencing o Researchers can exploit the principle of complementary base pairing to determine a gene s complete nucleotide sequence called DNA sequencing o The first automated procedure was based on a technique called dideoxy or chain termination sequencing developed by Sanger o Next generation sequencing techniques use a single template strand that is immobilized and amplified to produce an enormous number of identical fragments Thousands or hundreds of thousands of fragments 400 1 000 nucleotides long are sequenced in parallel This is a type of high throughput technology In third generation sequencing the techniques used are even faster and less expensive than the previous o To work directly with specific genes scientists prepare well defined DNA segments in multiple identical copies by a process called DNA cloning o Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the bacterial chromosome o Researchers can insert DNA into plasmids to produce recombinant DNA a molecule with DNA from two different sources o The production of multiple copies of a single gene is a type of DNA cloning called gene cloning o A plasmid used to clone a foreign gene is called a cloning vector Using Restriction Enzymes to Make a Recombinant DNA Plasmid o



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