UMass Amherst KIN 460 - 14-Basal ganglia Cerebellum (16 pages)

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14-Basal ganglia Cerebellum



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14-Basal ganglia Cerebellum

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Pages:
16
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Kin 460 - Motor Control
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Overall organization of neural structures that control movement Questions What are the functions of the cerebellum in movement control What is the role of cerebellum in the control of locomotion What is the role of basal ganglia in the control of movement CEREBELLUM Larger than you d think Cerebellum Modifies the activity pattern of upper motor neurons from the cerebral cortex Primary roles movement coordination and error detection Movement corrections mediated by cerebellum occurs during ongoing movement Movement error is stored as a form of motor learning e g locomotor adaptation A cerebellar Purkinje neuron in a living slice from mouse cerebellum Activity of Purkinje cells in two different states Neuronal activity in the cerebellum changes continually during the course of a movement tonic activity Wrist movement Purkinje cell less active Dysdiadochokinesia inability to make rapid alternating movements https www youtube com watch v 4kEgOlHtMdQ Questions What are the functions of the cerebellum in movement control What is the role of cerebellum in the control of locomotion What is the role of basal ganglia in the control of movement Cerebellum and locomotion Cerebellum is involved with fine tuning of limb movements Cerebellum receives sensory information through spinocerebellar pathways leg proprioceptors mechanical state of limbs stepping interneurons in the CPG state of spinal locomotor network Cerebellum also receives input from motor cortex and other regions collaterals of corticospinal tract neurons Cerebellum compares actual leg movement with intended movement from CPG and motor cortex If error is detected cerebellum sends corretive signals to brainstem Cerebellum and locomotion Damage to the cerebellum Disrupts modulation and coordination of ongoing movement difficulty producing smooth wellcoordinated multi joint movmements jerky and imprecise movement Cerebellar ataxia widened base of support impaired coordination of joints abnormal coupling between limbs during stepping Cerebellum is involved in regulating stepping movements http www youtube com watch v kAiIfulpYzU Questions What are the functions of the cerebellum in movement control What is the role of cerebellum in the control of locomotion What is the role of basal ganglia in the control of movement Basal Ganglia Set of nuclei deep within the cerebral hemispheres Basal Ganglia Array of complex inhibitory and excitatory connections impacts entire motor system also control of eye movements Neuronal activity modulates upper motor neuron activity in anticipation of and during movements Damage to basal ganglia cause inability to switch smoothly between commands movement initiation and movement termination Figure 18 10 Neurological diseases provide insights into function of the basal ganglia Degeneration substantia nigra pigmented area Size of corpus striatum is reduced Diseases of the basal ganglia Parkinson s hypokinetic origin unclear too much inhibition rigidity tremor bradykinesia postural instability Huntington s hyperkinetic lack of inhibition genetic changes mutant gene Chromosome 4 rapid jerky motions Choreiform mood character affected https www youtube com watch v yRFi01fIeeM


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