UMass Amherst KIN 460 - Communication between neurons- Synaptic transmission Handout (5 pages)

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Communication between neurons- Synaptic transmission Handout



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Communication between neurons- Synaptic transmission Handout

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Pages:
5
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Kin 460 - Motor Control
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Questions Communication between neurons Postural Control in Multiple Sclerosis synaptic transmission Stability and Complexity Analyses What type neuronal synapses exist What kind of neurotransmitters exist University of Massachusetts Amherst Department of Kinesiology Questions Electrical and chemical synapses differ in their transmission mechanisms 1 What type neuronal synapses exist 1 Intercellular communiction Gap junctions Electrical and chemical synapses differ in their transmission mechanisms Part 1 The current I generated by the presynaptic cell has two alternative routes it can either cross the gap and enter the postsynaptic cell or it can simply leak out sideways through the synaptic cleft Gap junctions Increaser Rl lateral Reduce Rf forward Structure and function of gap junctions at electrical synapses Part 2 Crayfish neuron brief synaptic delay 0 1 ms Fast Bi directional Respiration Structure and function of gap junctions at electrical synapses Part 3 Synchronization hippocampus neurons 2 Electrical synapse Limitation difficult in transmission of signal from small to large neuronal cell small neuron is not able to generate action potential in larger one Electrical and chemical synapses differ in their transmission mechanisms Part 2 Slower Activation and inhibition modulation Answer chemical neurotransmitters Chemical Neurotransmission Sequence of events involved in transmission at a typical chemical synapse 3 Co transmitters Direct and indirect chemical neurotransmission direct Cholinergic receptors neuromuscular junction Co transmitters single neuron contains two or more neurotransmitters Indirect G protein gated channels with effect on membrane channels Left The transduction mechanism in retinal rod receptors that allows them to respond to light Questions neurotransmitters 2 What kind of neurotransmitters exist Acetylcholine Ach neuromuscular junction Glutamate excitatory Gamma aminobutyric acid GABA inhibitory dopamine movement excitatory Serotonin sleep and wakefulness Norepinephrine arousal and attention Histamine arousal and attention 4 Gamma Amino Butyric Acid GABA main inhibitor Spastic Diplegia Cerebral Palsy Damage to upper motor neurons in Cerebral cortex basal ganglia and brainstem reduced GABA absorption Result increased tone hypertonicity spasticity malformation Dopamine Stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamines act directly on dopamine Reward system produced in brain Parkinsons lack of dopamine Schizophrenia elevated levels Glutamate Found in majority of excitatory synapses in brain and spinal cord Involved in synaptic plasticity plays role in neurodegeneration after brain cord damage overstimulation and cell death Acetylcholine Excitatory neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junction Autonomic nervous system inhibitory for heart rate Disease Myasthenia Gravis grave muscle weakness Questions 1 What type neuronal synapses exist 2 What kind of neurotransmitters exist 5


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