NCSU BIO 181 - 5Theory of Ev Presentation (poll pc) bw (13 pages)

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5Theory of Ev Presentation (poll pc) bw



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5Theory of Ev Presentation (poll pc) bw

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Pages:
13
School:
North Carolina State University at Raleigh
Course:
Bio 181 - Introductory Biology: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity
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Evolution I Evolution Overall Concepts Charles Darwin and Evolution The times they are achangin II Darwin s Evidence and Mechanism BIO 181 1 2 I Overall Concepts Levels of Evolution change through time fact and theory Physical never accepted 100 Origin of life Earth and Mars Elsewhere Biological theory processes Origin of universe and Earth Chemical scientific fact has occurred and is occurring Origin of diversity Cultural Origin of human social structures 3 4 History con t History of Western Ideas Ancient Greeks rudimentary ideas Aristotle s Scala Natura inheritance of acquired characteristics Organisms progressive up a Ladder of Nature with humans at the top Lower and Higher species believed that use or disuse of organs exaggerated the organ Biblical Creation species fixed and unchanging Jean Baptiste de Lamarck French early 1800 s disproven so evolution disproven 1600 s 1700 s Enlightenment questioning of fixity of species exploration new species from new lands Charles Darwin 1859 testable mechanism for evolution fossils 5 6 1 Evolution the unifying theme Evolution Gene cloning The relationships between science and Industrial agriculture Biodiversity Mutation Cancer society Continental drift AIDS Antibiotic resistance Hybrid corn Dinosaur extinction 7 Judeo Christian Tradition 8 Judeo Christian Tradition Scientific creationism versus Evolution 9 10 Charles Robert Darwin HMS Beagle 1809 1882 British father a prominent physician 2 years of medical school in Edinburgh hated it Cambridge University Divinity Degree natural theology Darwin a confirmed creationist 1831 1836 voyage of HMS Beagle 11 Capt Robert Fitz Roy http www aboutdarwin com voyage Voyage 02 jpg http www rit edu rhrsbi GalapagosPages SlideShow slides Beagle jpeg 2 12 Charles Darwin Darwin s Life Married Emma Wedgwood 10 children 3 knighted 3 died in infancy Treatise on barnacles Geology of South America Downe House Kent country gentleman Sir Francis Darwin 1848 1925 botanist 13 Before now I did not know that Charles Darwin was trained to be a minister On the Origin of Species Sir Horace Darwin 1851 1928 founded Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co 14 Published in 1859 1 2 Did not know that Already knew that 15 II Darwin s Lines of Evidence for Evolution 16 1 Fossils 1 Fossils Evidence in the geological record 2 Anatomy 3 Embryology 4 Breeding 5 Geography http www all creatures org hope gw evolutionary tree 002 gif 17 18 3 Fossil Record Fossil Record Earliest fossils simple bacterialike Increasing diversity with time Transitional forms indicate that species can evolve from one form to another Archaeopterix indicates that dinosaurs are ancestral to birds 19 20 http www lingannodellevoluzione com images evolucionismo archeopterix jpg 2 Anatomy Transitional fossils Similarities in morphology form and structure anatomy Pakicetus earlier land mammal Aetiocetus later aquatic early whale Modern Gray Whale lives today Nostrils in front Nostrils in middle Nostrils on top 21 22 2 Anatomy 2 Anatomy Homology Similarity due to common descent Structures of leaves also show homology in modifications for various adaptations Structure Vertebrate forelimbs Modifications of same bones 23 24 http evolution berkeley edu evolibrary article 0 0 0 lines 04 4 2 Anatomy 2 Anatomy Vestigial structures feature inherited from ancestor but now less elaborate and functional dewclaws Homology Chemistry Proteins DNA Nonfunctional digits Pigs dogs Pelvic bones Pythons whales http evolution berkeley edu evolibrary images lines pigfoot gif 25 26 3 Embryology 4 Biogeography Similarities of larval embryonic forms of many animal species Distribution of organisms in time and space Most parsimoniously explained by evolution and continental drift Example Marsupial mammals Carry young in a pouch Opossum Kangaroo 27 Convergent Evolution http evolution berkeley edu evolibrary article 0 0 0 lines 11 Fossil distribution 28 5 Breeding Domestic Animals Similar characteristics Not closely related Geographically separated Similar environments Euphorb Africa Cactus North America 29 30 5 Artificial Selection Artificial Selection Terminal bud Pigeon breeding Lateral buds Brussels sprouts Cabbage Selective breeding Few generations Striking differences Flower cluster Leaves Cauliflower Kale Flower and stems Broccoli Stem Wild mustard Kohlrabi 31 32 Darwin s Theory Darwin s Theory Descent with modification Testable mechanism Natural Selection Four parts Part 1 Reproduction tremendous capacity for reproduction elephants slow breeding 1 pr 19 million in 750 years robins 1 pr 10 633 560 in 10 years bacteria double in 30 min 248 in 24 hours reproduction variation competition natural selection 33 34 Reproduction Darwin s Theory species tend to reproduce more offspring than can survive Part 2 Variation offspring show variation variation due to genetic makeup Inherited from parents May arise early in development 35 36 6 Darwin s Theory Types of Variation Variation random changes Numerous intergraded traits within a population Often controlled by several genes Often most individuals near average trait extremes uncommon sources Cannot create new variants 1 sexual reproduction Shuffles genes from parents Bell curve Human height 2 Immigration Creates new variations 1 mutation Continuous variation Wide range Must be heritable Ultimate source of all variation 37 38 Continuous Variation Human Height Give your height 4 10 4 10 5 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 6 5 7 5 9 5 10 6 0 6 1 6 3 6 4 6 6 6 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 http campus queens edu faculty jannr Genetics images height jpg 39 40 Types of Variation What is your blood type Discontinuous variation Discreet traits within a population ABO blood groups A B Discreet types A B AB O C No intermediates D E A B AB O Not sure 41 42 7 I understand the di erence between the two types of variaAon A B C Yes Maybe No Fitness ability to leave offspring offspring inherit parents variations 43 44 Competition Review Part 3 competition for limited resources struggle for existence Part 1 Reproduction Organisms have a tremendous capacity for reproduction Part 2 Variation Part 3 Competition Organisms in a population show variation Organisms must compete for resources 45 46 Natural Selection Darwin s Theory Part 4 parents with favorable variations will leave more offspring variations Natural selection Darwin used artificial selection as model pigeon breeding breeders choose desirable traits over time population becomes better adapted mechanism of natural selection


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