NCSU TOX 201 - _Organ_Toxicity slides (35 pages)

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_Organ_Toxicity slides



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_Organ_Toxicity slides

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Pages:
35
School:
North Carolina State University at Raleigh
Course:
Tox 201 - Poisons, People and the Environment
Poisons, People and the Environment Documents

Unformatted text preview:

Poisons People and the Environment Target Organ Toxicity Target Organ Toxicity Not all organs are affected in the same manner by a toxicant A toxicant can have several target organs Different toxicants can have the same target organ The target organ may not have the highest concentration of a toxicant The concentration of the toxicant in a target organ is the sum of all toxicokinetic processes Target Organs in the Human Body brain What is Neurotoxicity Neurotoxicity occurs when exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances neurotoxicants alters the normal activity of the nervous system Cognitive Effects memory learning confusion Motor Effects weakness convulsion paralysis Sensory Effects vision auditory touch balance Mood and Personality Effects sleep depression irritability excitability General Effects loss of appetite fatigue Components of the Nervous System CNS Central Nervous System PNS Peripheral Nervous System Blood brain barrier Neuronal cells Neurotransmitters receptors 10 100 billion cells with 1015 connections brain axons and cell bodies Neuron Image from Purves et al Life The Science of Biology 4th Edition Neurotransmitter vesicles Synaptic cleft Myelin Axon of motor neuron Mitochondria Motor end plate Skeletal muscle fiber gy Neurotransmitter receptors Neuronopathy Normal Myelinopathy Axonopathy Transmission neuron Myelinating cell axon synapse Adapted from Casarett and Doull s Toxicology A Basic Science of Poisons and A Small Dose of Toxicology by S Gilbert Neurological and Behavioral Effects of Exposure to Toxic Substances Cognitive Effects Memory problems confusion speech impairment learning impairment Motor Effects Convulsions weakness tremor twitching lack of coordination unsteadiness paralysis reflex abnormalities activity changes Sensory Effects Equilibrium changes vision disorders pain disorders tactile disorders auditory disorders Neurological and Behavioral Effects of Exposure to Toxic Substances Mood and personality effects Sleep disturbances excitability depression irritability restlessness nervousness tension delirium hallucinations General effects Loss of appetite depression of neuronal activity narcosis stupor fatigue nerve damage Site of action Neurotoxic change Neurotoxic chemical Corresponding disorder Neuron cell body Neuronopathy Methylmercury Quinolinic acid 3 Acetylpyridine Minamata disease Huntingtons disease Cerebellar ataxia Nerve terminal Terminal destruction 1 methyl 4 phenyl 1 2 3 6 tetrahydropyridine MPTP dopaminergic Parkinson s disease Schwann cell myelin Myelinopathy Hexachlorophene Congenital hypomyelinogenesis Centra peripheral distal axon Distal axonopathy Acrylamide carbon disulfide Peripheral neuropathy n hexane Central axons Central axonopathy Clioquinol Subacute myelooticoneuropathy Proximal axon Proximal axonopathy B BIminodipropionitrile Motor neuron disease Biotransformation of Mercury http www usgs gov themes factsheet 146 00 Mercury Toxicity http www teratology org jfs Agricultural html



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