TAMU GEOL 101 - Final Exam Study Guide - Fall2017 (5 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide - Fall2017



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Final Exam Study Guide - Fall2017

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Pages:
5
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Geol 101 - Principles Of Geology
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Study Guide Final Exam Online Geology 101 Fall 2017 You will find most of the key points below in the lecture slides posted on eCampus Chapter 9 Geologic Time What are the 5 principles of relative geologic dating Define an unconformity What are the 3 types of unconformities and how are they significant Fossil preservation what normally happens to an organism when it dies Is there a complete fossil record of all types of organisms that have ever lived What are body fossils vs trace fossils Define correlation and how it is used Numerical Dating define isotope and radioactive isotope What is a radioactive half life How does numerical dating work What are the useful aspects of Carbon 14 dating Earth s oldest rocks what where how old Geologic time scale what are eons eras and periods Which period do we now live in Chapter 10 Rock Deformation Define deformation Define confining pressure and differential stress How do rocks deform can any rock deform in a brittle or ductile manner What are the main factors that affect rock deformation Geologic structures Folds what are anticlines synclines domes and basins What is a fault What are normal reverse thrust and strike slip faults Chapter 14 Mountain Building In general most of Earth s mountain belts have been produced by what What are the most significant features of the following Island arc type mountain building Andean type mountain building Alpine type mountain building and 2 examples Cordilleran type mountain building and 1 example in North America Mountain building in divergent margins What are good modern examples of the above types of mountains Define isostasy In what geologic environments do isostatic adjustments take place Chapter 11 Earthquakes What is an earthquake What is elastic rebound theory Define the focus and epicenter of an earthquake What is seismology What are seismographs and seismograms What are the differences between body waves and surface waves What are the characteristics of primary waves and secondary waves What is the difference between earthquake intensity and magnitude What are the two main types of magnitude calculations What happens during the types of destruction associated with earthquakes Liquefaction what is it and why is it significant Ground rupture Landslides mass wasting Fires Tsunamis know their detailed characteristics In what types of geologic environments do earthquakes occur Where are areas of greatest earthquake risk in the U S What are short range earthquake prediction efforts and are they successful What is long range earthquake forecasting What are the two approaches to long range forecasting Chapter 12 Earth s Interior How do we know the characteristics of Earth s internal layers What happens as seismic waves pass through layers having different physical properties How do P waves and S waves reveal information about Earth s interior What are the characteristics of oceanic crust vs continental crust mantle asthenosphere outer core inner core What are the two main mechanisms of heat flow within Earth s interior Why is convection so significant Define the geothermal gradient What are the characteristics of Earth s gravity field near the surface How is Earth s magnetic field generated What is the significance of reversals of the Earth s magnetic field Chapter 15 Mass Wasting Define mass wasting What roles do the following factors play in mass wasting Water Slope steepness Properties of the rock material Removal of vegetation Earthquakes or volcanic eruptions Knowing the factors above where would you not build your dream home What are the main characteristics of the following mass wasting processes Rock falls Slumps Rockslides Debris flows mudflows including lahars Earthflows Creep Chapter 16 Streams Running Water What is a stream Define drainage basin and divide Define stream gradient and discharge Streams erode their channels and the landscape transport sediment and deposit sediment What controls which of these processes takes place What are the three types of sediment load transported by streams What is alluvium What are the main characteristics of bedrock stream channels What are the characteristics of meandering stream channels and how do they change through time What are point bars a cut bank and oxbow lakes What are the main characteristics of braided stream channels What is base level and how do streams respond to changes in base level What are characteristics of a stream that is actively downcutting What are stream terraces and incised meanders Why are sedimentary deposits associated with streams significant What are the characteristics of the following depositional landforms Deltas Natural levees Alluvial fans Flooding is the most common and deadly natural hazard in the U S but it is a natural part of stream behavior What types of areas are prone to flash flooding Flood recurrence intervals what is meant by a 100 year flood Could more than one 100 year flood occur in a 1 5 year time span Chapter 17 Groundwater What is groundwater and where does it exist underground How does groundwater originate Define the zone of saturation the water table and the unsaturated zone What is porosity What is the general nature of groundwater flow What are recharge areas and discharge areas What is permeability and why is it important for groundwater flow Define hydraulic gradient Define aquifer and aquitard What is an artesian groundwater system What are the main points of the following groundwater related issues Groundwater supply and mining groundwater Subsidence Contamination Salt water intrusion How many of the above issues face Texas How does groundwater dissolve rock like limestone What are speleothems and how do they form in general What is karst topography and what are common features found in karst landscapes Chapter 18 Glaciers What is a glacier What are valley glaciers and ice sheets and what are their characteristics When was the most recent major glacial maximum How has Earth s climate changed since then How do glaciers form How do glaciers move How rapidly do they move What are crevasses What happens in the zone of accumulation and the zone of wastage in a glacier What happens if accumulation and wastage are not balanced Glaciers erode the landscape transport sediment and deposit sediment What are the following features produced by glacial erosion Glacial striations and grooves Glacial troughs U shaped valleys Hanging valleys Cirque Arete Horn Fjord fiord What are the following types of


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