TAMU CSCE 420 - chapter01 (27 pages)

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chapter01

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Pages:
27
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Csce 420 - Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence Documents
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Artificial Intelligence Chapter 1 Chapter 1 1 Outline What is AI A brief history The state of the art Chapter 1 2 What is AI Systems that think like humans Systems that think rationally Systems that act like humans Systems that act rationally Chapter 1 3 Acting humanly The Turing test Turing 1950 Computing machinery and intelligence Can machines think Can machines behave intelligently Operational test for intelligent behavior the Imitation Game HUMAN HUMAN INTERROGATOR AI SYSTEM Predicted that by 2000 a machine might have a 30 chance of fooling a lay person for 5 minutes Anticipated all major arguments against AI in following 50 years Suggested major components of AI knowledge reasoning language understanding learning Problem Turing test is not reproducible constructive or amenable to mathematical analysis Chapter 1 4 Thinking humanly Cognitive Science 1960s cognitive revolution information processing psychology replaced prevailing orthodoxy of behaviorism Requires scientific theories of internal activities of the brain What level of abstraction Knowledge or circuits How to validate Requires 1 Predicting and testing behavior of human subjects top down or 2 Direct identification from neurological data bottom up Both approaches roughly Cognitive Science and Cognitive Neuroscience are now distinct from AI Both share with AI the following characteristic the available theories do not explain or engender anything resembling human level general intelligence Hence all three fields share one principal direction Chapter 1 5 Thinking rationally Laws of Thought Normative or prescriptive rather than descriptive Aristotle what are correct arguments thought processes Several Greek schools developed various forms of logic notation and rules of derivation for thoughts may or may not have proceeded to the idea of mechanization Direct line through mathematics and philosophy to modern AI Problems 1 Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by logical deliberation 2 What is the purpose of thinking What thoughts should I have out of all the thoughts logical or otherwise that I could have Chapter 1 6 Acting rationally Rational behavior doing the right thing The right thing that which is expected to maximize goal achievement given the available information Doesn t necessarily involve thinking e g blinking reflex but thinking should be in the service of rational action Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics Every art and every inquiry and similarly every action and pursuit is thought to aim at some good Chapter 1 7 Rational agents An agent is an entity that perceives and acts This course is about designing rational agents Abstractly an agent is a function from percept histories to actions f P A For any given class of environments and tasks we seek the agent or class of agents with the best performance Caveat computational limitations make perfect rationality unachievable design best program for given machine resources Chapter 1 8 AI prehistory Philosophy logic methods of reasoning mind as physical system foundations of learning language rationality Mathematics formal representation and proof algorithms computation un decidability in tractability probability Psychology adaptation phenomena of perception and motor control experimental techniques psychophysics etc Economics formal theory of rational decisions Linguistics knowledge representation grammar Neuroscience plastic physical substrate for mental activity Control theory homeostatic systems stability simple optimal agent designs Chapter 1 9 Potted history of AI 1943 1950 1952 69 1950s 1956 1965 1966 74 1969 79 1980 88 1988 93 1985 95 1988 1995 2003 McCulloch Pitts Boolean circuit model of brain Turing s Computing Machinery and Intelligence Look Ma no hands Early AI programs including Samuel s checkers program Newell Simon s Logic Theorist Gelernter s Geometry Engine Dartmouth meeting Artificial Intelligence adopted Robinson s complete algorithm for logical reasoning AI discovers computational complexity Neural network research almost disappears Early development of knowledge based systems Expert systems industry booms Expert systems industry busts AI Winter Neural networks return to popularity Resurgence of probability general increase in technical depth Nouvelle AI ALife GAs soft computing Agents agents everywhere Human level AI back on the agenda Chapter 1 10 State of the art Which of the following can be done at present Play a decent game of table tennis Chapter 1 11 State of the art Which of the following can be done at present Play a decent game of table tennis Drive safely along a curving mountain road Chapter 1 12 State of the art Which of the following can be done at present Play a decent game of table tennis Drive safely along a curving mountain road Drive safely along Telegraph Avenue Chapter 1 13 State of the art Which of the following can be done at present Play a decent game of table tennis Drive safely along a curving mountain road Drive safely along Telegraph Avenue Buy a week s worth of groceries on the web Chapter 1 14 State of the art Which of the following can be done at present Play a decent game of table tennis Drive safely along a curving mountain road Drive safely along Telegraph Avenue Buy a week s worth of groceries on the web Buy a week s worth of groceries at Berkeley Bowl Chapter 1 15 State of the art Which of the following can be done at present Play a decent game of table tennis Drive safely along a curving mountain road Drive safely along Telegraph Avenue Buy a week s worth of groceries on the web Buy a week s worth of groceries at Berkeley Bowl Play a decent game of bridge Chapter 1 16 State of the art Which of the following can be done at present Play a decent game of table tennis Drive safely along a curving mountain road Drive safely along Telegraph Avenue Buy a week s worth of groceries on the web Buy a week s worth of groceries at Berkeley Bowl Play a decent game of bridge Discover and prove a new mathematical theorem Chapter 1 17 State of the art Which of the following can be done at present Play a decent game of table tennis Drive safely along a curving mountain road Drive safely along Telegraph Avenue Buy a week s worth of groceries on the web Buy a week s worth of groceries at Berkeley Bowl Play a decent game of bridge Discover and prove a new mathematical theorem Design and execute a research program in molecular biology Chapter 1 18 State of the art Which of the following can be done at present Play a decent game of


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