CORNELL BIOEE 1780 - Indented TOL 10.15.17 (4 pages)

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Indented TOL 10.15.17



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Indented TOL 10.15.17

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4
School:
Cornell University
Course:
Bioee 1780 - An Introduction to Evolutionary Biology and Diversity
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Indented TOL for BioEE 1780 Fall 2017 Includes selected example taxa and synapomorphies or traits dagger symbol indicates an extinct taxon Viruses Megavirales are here because we have no idea where they link to the Tree of Life LIFE hereditary nucleic acids triplet amino acid code ATP for energy plasma membrane Bacteria spirochetes chlamydias Cyanobacteria Proteobacteria E coli peptidoglycan in cell wall Unnamed taxon DNA with histones introns Archaeans Eukaryans cells with mitochondria nucleus Alveolates dinoflagellates ciliates Plasmodium Stramenopiles brown algae diatoms Excavates Euglenids Giardia Trypanosoma Plants see plant classification below Amoebozoans slime molds Opisthokonts single posterior flagellum Fungi chitin in cell wall absorptive heterotrophy Microsporidia reduced mitochondria polar tube chytrids flagellated gametes Amphibian killer fungus unnamed taxon Glomeromycota arbuscular mycorrhizae Dikarya dikaryon stage 2 nuclei septate hyphae Ascomycota spores in an ascus Brewer s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lichens here b c the fungus is Ascomycota Basidiomycota spores in a basidium unnamed taxon Animals 1 cadherins Choanoflagellates collar of sticky tentacles Animalia see animal classification below DNA having 7 or more HOX genes Extracellular matrix collagen Plants 1o chloroplasts Glaucophytes unnamed taxon no peptidoglycan in chloroplast wall Red algae unnamed taxon chlorophyll b starch Chlorophytes Embryophytes Land Plants cuticle retention of embryo Liverworts unnamed taxon stomata Mosses Vascular plants tracheid vascular system Lycophytes Microphylls unnamed taxon Megaphylls unnamed taxon Horsetails Ferns Seed plants seeds Gymnosperms Gingko conifers Angiosperms flowers fruit double fertilization Animalia Sponges mineral spicules Eumetazoans tissues nerves muscle Ctenophores 8 combs unnamed taxon Cnidarians anemones and corals jellyfish hydras cnidocytes Bilaterians triploblastic tissues bilateral symmetry Protostomes blastopore develops into mouth Lophotrochozoans trochophore larva Flatworms flatworms flukes tapeworms Mollusks bivalves gastropods cephalopods Annelids earthworms leeches Ecdysozoans shed exoskeleton Nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans Arthropods Trilobites Chelicerates Myriapods Pancrustaceans Crustacea Insecta Drosophila melanogaster Deuterostomes blastopore develops into anus Echinoderms Starfishes Brittle Stars Crinoids Sea Urchins Sea Cucumbers water vascular system with tube feet pentaradial as adults Chordates notochord dorsal hollow nerve cord post anal tail Cephalochordates Lancelets amphioxus notochord extends to tip of body unnamed taxon DNA Urochordates Tunicates tunic of cellulose Vertebrates cranium vertebrae Cyclostomes Lampreys specialized mouth Hagfishes Gnathostomes Jaws develop from anterior pharyngeal gill arches paired lateral fins Chondrichthyans sharks prismatic calcification of cartilage pelvic fins of males bear claspers Bony vertebrates bones Ray finned fishes can spread and collapse fin webs swim bladder Lobe finned fishes lobe fins Coelacanths distinctive tufted caudal fin Lungfishes breath air and water Tetrapods see tetrapod classification below four legs five or more digits Tetrapods Amphibians Amniotes amniotic egg Reptiles Lepidosaurs lizards snakes unnamed taxon Turtles skeleton expanded into shell Archosaurs hole in skull in front of orbit and hole in mandible Crocodilians secondary bony palate Pterosaurs elongated finger to support wing Dinosaurs modified pelvis Ornithischians pubis bone oriented posteriorly Saurischians pubis bone oriented anteriorly Sauropods Theropods Tyrannosaurus birds Mammals mammary glands hair soft palate Prototherians Platypus Echidna unnamed taxon no external eggs young retained internally Metatherians Marsupials kangaroos opossums pouch Eutherians Bats Rodents Mus musculus Cetaceans placenta Prosimians Lemurs Primates Tarsiers unnamed taxon New world monkeys Tamarins Marmosets Howlers nose with wide septum prehensile tail Old world monkeys Macaque Baboon nose with narrow septum non prehensile tail Apes Gibbons Gorilla Orangutan Pongo Pan Chimpanzee Bonobo Hominins Ardipithecus Paranthropus Australopithecus Homo erectus H heidelbergensis H neanderthaensisl H sapiens


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