# Wright BIO 2110 - BIO2110_f2016_exam3 (14 pages)

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## BIO2110_f2016_exam3

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- Bio 2110 - Principles of Molecular and Classical Genetics

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Name BIO 2110 Genetics Exam 3 9 December 2016 See last page for potentially useless formulae Show your work for all problems calculators permitted 1 Variation in body color pattern in newts results from allelic variation at a single gene Dominance relationships among these alleles are shown below Also shown is the distribution of phenotypes within a population of newts From these data determine the frequencies of all alleles and genotypes for this gene Assume this population is in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium genotype AA Aa A phenotype phenotypic distribution Green with yellow stripes 228 aa Green with large yellow spots 300 a Green with small yellow spots 480 Green no yellow spots 192 2 Saltwater crocodile populations currently are present in the Irrawaddy Delta in Myanmar and in northern Australia Adults in both of these populations grow to a length of 23 feet F1 hybrids from crosses between these populations also grow to a length of 23 feet Among 768 F2 adults three were observed that were 35 feet long i Describe a quantitative genetic model to explain the presence of these 35 footlong crocodiles in the F2 population i e What were the genotypes of the P0s in this hybrid cross ii Based on your model what would be the smallest F2 crocodile observed 3 Fang length variation in Smilodon fatalis resulted from allelic variation at a single gene Dominance relationships for this gene are shown below Also shown are the relative fitnesses of genotypes and the initial frequencies of alleles for this gene Determine allelic and genotypic frequencies for this gene through two generations of selection Assume no other departures from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium genotype AA Aa aa fang length 8 inches 9 inches 1 inch relative fitness 0 7 1 0 0 2 allele A a initial frequency p 0 9 q 0 1 4 Size variation in Pterois sphex is normally distributed see below How would this distribution change if predation selectively targeted i ii iii iv smaller fish smaller and larger fish average sized fish What is each of these types of selection called Show your answers graphically i e below the distribution show draw near distributions that would result from the described selective regimes 5 Ostrich height is a quantitative trait Shown below are cumulative distributions for the sizes of backcross progeny that are homozygous or heterozygous at the DM 3 marker Based on these distributions i what is the probability p value that the distribution of homozygotes is equal to the distribution of heterozygotes Round D statistic off to the nearest value found in Table 2 ii what is the Lod score for DM 3 Table 1 Cumulative Distributions for DM 3 homozygotes and heterozygotes Height 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Homozygotes 0 071 0 071 0 214 0 286 0 357 0 500 0 714 0 857 0 929 1 000 1 000 1 000 1 000 Table 2 p values for K S test D statistic p value 0 05 0 996 0 10 0 869 0 15 0 730 0 20 0 571 0 25 0 417 0 30 0 284 0 35 0 180 0 40 0 106 0 45 0 059 0 50 0 030 0 55 0 014 0 60 0 006 0 65 0 003 0 70 0 001 0 75 0 000 0 80 0 000 0 85 0 000 0 90 0 000 0 95 0 000 1 00 0 000 Heterozygotes 0 000 0 000 0 000 0 071 0 071 0 071 0 143 0 286 0 429 0 643 0 786 0 857 1 000 6 In a population of 2 313 axolotls a G A transition occurs at position 312 of a histone methyltransferase i What is the initial frequency of this mutation ii What is the probability of fixation of this mutation iii What is the probability of extinction of this mutation 7 Variation in shell color in Chlamyphorus truncatus results from allelic variation in a single gene Dominance relationships for this gene are shown below Also shown are census data for a population of C truncates Based on these data i What is the inbreeding coefficient in this population ii What phenotypic frequencies would be observed for each shell color if the population was in equilibrium genotype PP Pp pp shell color pink purple red number in population 704 192 104 8 Below is a comparison of DNA sequences from four tufted deer Elaphodus cehpalophus Based on these data what is the effective population size of this species Assume a mutation rate of 10 8 mutations per site per generation GATCA GATCA GATCA GATCA GACCT GACCT GACCT GACCT CATTC CTTTC CATTC CATTC GATAA GATCA GATCA GATAA TATAA TATAA TATAA TATAA CTAGA CTAGA CTAGA CTAGA AGTAC AGTAC AGTAC AGTAC GATAT GATAT GATAT GATAT GCCCC GCCCC GCCCC GCGCC GTCCC ATCCC CTCCC ATCCC 9 Divergence d between Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis sinica is 0 415 Assuming a mutation rate m of 10 8 mutations per nucleotide per generation what is the divergence time between these two species If there are 100 generations of C briggsae and C sinica per year how many years has it been since these species diverged 10 In feral dachshunds variation in toe number results from allelic variation in a single gene Dachshunds with AA and Aa genotypes have four toes on each paw whereas dachshunds with an aa genotype have three toes on each paw In populations separated by the Kanawha River Gorge the three toed phenotype has frequencies of 0 01 and 0 49 in the Eastern and Western populations respectively Migration occurs from East to West me w 0 1 but not from West to East mw e 0 0 After two generations of migration what will be the frequency of three toed dachshunds in the western population phenotype three toed four toed Eastern Population frequency 0 01 0 99 Western Population frequency 0 49 0 51 e mc2 WAAp2 WAa2pq Waaq2 W F 1 p q r 1 p1 n 1 1 m2 1 p1 n m2 1 p2 n p2 q2 r2 2pq 2pr 2pr 1 pn 1 WAAp2 WAapq W T PA1 GA1B1 GA1B2 EA1B1 PA1 PB1 e h p q 1 p2 2pq q2 1 n d 2 t Lod Log10 odds d 2kt k a 1 1 3 1 n 1 DA1B1 EA1B1 GA1B1 4Ne odds QTL D difference max 1 1 1 1 W k a 1 6 1 3 4 5 15 1 2 1 3 6 10 20 1 1 4 10 15 1 5 6 1 1 n c 1 2

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