UNO URBN 1000 - Chapter 11_Gentrification.pptx (44 pages)

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Chapter 11_Gentrification.pptx



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Chapter 11_Gentrification.pptx

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breakdown of cities classism and where people live and why


Pages:
44
School:
University of New Orleans
Course:
Urbn 1000 - Introduction to Cities
Unformatted text preview:

URBN 1000 Introduction to Cities Part 2 U S Cities Historical and Modern Perspectives Class Outline urban crisis vs urban revival Gentrification Post K New Orleans suburban investment urban disinvestment Did the immediate post WWII suburb 1945 1960 cause rapid social and economic destruction in the inner city True and false true but not immediately after Inner city blacks actually worst off in inner cities after the Civil Rights Movement than they were before the movement Started really in late 1960s and rapidly into the 1970s Shift of people and businesses takes middle class away from the city taking their disposable income with them Suburbs destroys downtown commerce in favor of malls Inner city decay popular media images in the 1970s and 1980s Example urban housing projects rise of the ghetto st 21 Century Urbanism Cities and suburbs are constantly changing over time 20th century urban crisis vs 21st century urban revival 1970s and 1980s inner cities urban crises High crime rates Poor public education Government abandonment of social welfare programs High rates of poverty Poor housing stock and dismal city infrastructure Eroding tax base due to white flight Deindustrialization https demographics virginia edu DotMap index html Anti urbanism 1970s but as early as the 1940s 1990s today urban revival The 2000s witnessed Americans rediscovering the city center urban renaissance of American cities No longer just urban problems now suburban problems too Urban crime declined nationwide by 2 3 b w 1994 and 2014 Key idea changes in cities and suburbs happen not because of individual choice s but because of structural decisions made by powerful social economic political entities that therefore influence our choices structure vs agency investment in one area leads to disinvestment in another Urban revival is highly uneven and unequal and not all benefit Convention Centers Convention centers are one example of an economic growth strategy to revive major downtowns Ernest N Morial New Orleans Convention Center Strategically located at intersection of French Quarter CBD and Warehouse District and Canal Street Location near Harrah s Casino the Port of NOLA many hotels and restaurants and the newly reopened River walk Mall Draws many national conventions and promotes tourism Opened 1984 as part of World Fair in NOLA 1 1 million sq ft 5th largest in country 2nd busiest before Katrina Ernest N Morial Convention Center New Orleans Convention Center New Orleans Convention Center Future Expansion Gentrification Gentrification The social cultural economic process of urban neighborhood change where middle class oftentimes white and college educated individuals move into poor primarily black and ethnic neighborhoods bringing economic investment and capital after years of disinvestment They rehabilitate historic and culturally rich housing shotguns in NOLA which in turn raises property values but also displaces and out prices the poor residents who have lived NOLA shotgun houses Gentrification History Term first coined in 1964 by British sociologist Ruth Glass describing the return of the British gentry into historic inner city urban neighborhoods of London One by one many of the working class neighborhoods of London have been invaded by the middle classes upper and lower Shabby modest mews and cottages have been taken over when their leases have expired and have become elegant expensive residences Once this process of gentrification starts in a district it goes on rapidly until all or most of the original working class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed Gentrification characteristics The following patterns are typically associated w gentrification Starts in poor neighborhoods b c land and housing is cheap due to decades of urban disinvestment and suburban investment Shifts from to renters to homeowners low property values to higher property values Blacks ethnics to whites lower and working class to middle and upper class DINKS Dual Income No Kids new restaurants coffee shops and niche stores Creation of green spaces including dog parks and bike paths Gentrification stages gutter Punks transient rebellious youth squatters hipsters starving artists and musicians gays lesbians yuppies fresh out of college techies wants to be in authentic Treme or hip Marigny bohemian bourgeoisie upper class lawyers doctors Starbucks and Whole Foods Gentrification pros and cons Con negatively critiqued as rich whites displace poor blacks in neighborhoods that they previously viewed as both dangerous and undesirable Pro decrease in crime rates Con loss of racial and ethnic diversity in favor of homogeneity Pro increase in property value housing rehabilitation and economic investment after decades of disinvestment Con benefits are unevenly enjoyed and neighborhoods become too expensive for the original inhabitants which leads to a loss of culture that attracted the gentry in the first place Post Katrina New Orleans is gentrifying 2005 and the 9 years following have marked a dramatic transformation of the city s urban geography it is whiter It is less dense It is gentrifying It is more educated It is wealthier It is rebuilding on higher ground New Orleans Katrina and Gentrification Hurricane Katrina was a social NOT natural disaster Who was most severely affected by the breaking of the levees Overwhelmingly African American neighborhoods Who lived and who died in the storm was a result of historical social inequalities in the city Elevation also mattered every foot counted largest internal U S diaspora of displaced people as a result of a natural disaster in American history Helps us make better sense out of how we think about and understand what we refer to as natural disasters Today the city has drastically transformed for good and bad 1880s New Orleans Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina Post Katrina NOLA Orleans Parish Jefferson Parish 2000 white 2010 white 2000 black 2010 black 2000 white 2010 white 2000 black 2010 black 27 31 67 59 65 55 23 26 2000 college 2010 college educated educated 26 36 Hispanic 2000 Hispanic 2010 Orleans 14 826 Orleans 20 849 Jefferson 32 418 Jefferson 58 359 Home Values Gentrified neighborhoods 2014 vs 2015 Mid City 295 341 325 355 Uptown Garden District 497 896 595 333 Uptown Tulane 479 177 509 968 Treme 381 968 593 381 Marigny New Orleans 2000 vs 2010 Marigny New Orleans 2000 2010 change Population 3 145 2 973 5 47 White 72 7 75 5 3 85 Black 17


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