SBCC ANTH 103 - Balinese (4 pages)

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Balinese



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Balinese

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Pages:
4
School:
Santa Barbara City College
Course:
Anth 103 - Intro To Cultural Anthropology
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1 List and describe the three worlds according to Balinese cosmology Include in your discussion the difference between their conception of creation and decay and the conception of good and evil in the Judeo Christian and Islamic traditions 10 points The main aspect of Balinese cosmology is polarity the three worlds in Balinese cosmology is the high world low world and human world The high world the sky and mountains where do live ancestors and Gods Gunung Agung the highest mountain in Bali is considered to be palace of the Gods and the low world the sea and underneath which are haunted by witches demons and other dark forces Between them the cultivated lands are the human world where the Balinese are due to balance the difference force good from the high world and bad from the low world Unlike the conception of good and evil in the Judeo Christian traditions that focuses on the defeat of the evil the Balinese concept on such opposed concepts creation and decay and good and evil focuses on the balance existing between the two These opposing pairs are seen as opposing poles of the universe constantly struggling against one another for dominance and so tending to create disorder and turmoil It is only the intervention of human through prayer and devotion that maintains some form of order in this universe One of the pair does not exist without the other and it is the purpose of religion and prayer in Bali to maintain a stable and peaceful balance between the opposing poles not the defeat of one and the ascendency of the other as is found in many other religions 2 Describe the subsistence system of Balinese and explain how it fits in with their cosmic world view In other words why is watering timed with temple ceremonies and what is the environmental significance of this practice Include in your discussion Subak organization the role of the Goddess of the Lake Dewi Danu the ecological techniques used and the mutually beneficial relationship between upstream and downstream subaks Your primary source will be Perfect Order 25 points The Balinese have traditionally relied on their own ritual based system for irrigation This system included a network of temples strategically placed at each level or diversion of the irrigation path These temples or shrines are for the farmers to show their gratitude with prayers and offerings These temples serve the Goddess of the Lake Dewi Danu by her 24 priests and the high priest who is believed to be the human representation of the Goddess herself Whenever there is a problem or consultation is needed to set the following year s irrigation schedules the subak leaders ascend to the temple where prayers offerings and meetings take place Planting and irrigation are controlled from this temple to affect a good crop and also ensure that those subaks who are far downstream will have enough water to sustain their paddies Because of crop rotation patterns they have limited problems with pests who could damage or totally destroy a season s crops This is all controlled by the Goddess of the Lake Festivals take place here as well even when there is to be no change in the irrigation crop rotation patterns Through the subak the alternating flow of water between wet and dry phases causes minerals leached from the rich volcanic soils to circulate from nitrogen and natural fertilizers and preserve nutrients in the soil It might be thought that upstream participants in this cooperative network of Subak would not want to cooperate because participating in Subak means they would have to leave some water for the farmers downstream and therefore would not be able to use it all themselves However the flow of irrigation water affects the population dynamics of rice pests for the rice paddies in Bali If fields are planted randomly rice pests can easily move from one filed to the next after harvest allowing pest populations to escalate By coordinating planting over a wide enough area farmers can create large fallow spaces that prevent pests from migrating between food patches Therefore the pest populations are kept small The low incidence of pests and diseases in the rice may also be attributed to other specific agricultural practices such as maintaining water layers on field after harvest and herding ducks in harvested fields In short both upstream and downstream farmers gain advantages from cooperating with each other Pest damage is reduced upstream while downstream farmers experience less water stress Su Hyun Kim 3 4 3 What role do the arts play including puppetry in explaining the supernatural beliefs of the Balinese How does it fit in with the Balinese conception of three worlds 10 points The arts play which includes puppetry plays a significant role in Bali The puppetry known as wayang refers to the Javanese word for shadow and the Balinese word for reflection With two hundred puppetries and five languages wayang can begin to reflect the full complexity of the Balinese world It is the most ancient Balinese art and still very popular to people in Bali The Balinese people believe that we cannot perceive a reality directly and wayang is the window into the other worlds A puppeteer uses a kayonan a tree of life which draws the energy of the three worlds and he can use those energies for the good of the community The Balinese believe strongly in the afterlife and they divide their view of the world into three worlds The released spirits of their ancestors along with the gods reside in the upper world swah while living humans reside in the middle world bwah The lower world where the demons reside is called bhur They interpret not only their geographical location on earth by the same definitions but they also apply those words to the human bodies That s why the Balinese use their conception of three worlds to their art like puppetry that also represents those in the play 4 What is Eka Desa Rudra What is its place in the three world concept How is this ceremony believed to renew the earth and cosmos every century Why was the 1963 attempt regarded as the wrong time according to this belief Perfect Order gives an in depthpresentation of the Balinese calendar called Uku 20 points Eka Dasa Rudra is a monumental and a purification ceremony which held every hundred years to place the demonic spirit of Rudra It refers to Eleven Rudras which expresses the omnipresence of the god of danger and wildness Also the Balinese entitle it a year that ends in two zeros The last one took place on


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