UT Dallas CS 4337 - #Sebesta ch02 rev1 to use (46 pages)

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#Sebesta ch02 rev1 to use



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#Sebesta ch02 rev1 to use

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Pages:
46
School:
University of Texas at Dallas
Course:
Cs 4337 - Organization of Programming Languages

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Chapter 2 Evolution of the Major Programming Languages Genealogy of Common Languages Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 2 Minimal Hardware Programming Pseudocodes What was wrong with using machine code Poor readability Poor modifiability Expression coding was tedious Machine deficiencies no indexing or floating point Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 3 Machine Language to Pseudocodes Assembly Language Speedcoding by Backus in 1954 for IBM 701 Pseudo ops for arithmetic and math functions Conditional and unconditional branching Auto increment registers for array access Slow Only 700 words left for user program The UNIVAC Compiling System Developed by a team led by Grace Hopper Pseudocode expanded into machine code David J Wheeler Cambridge University developed a method of using blocks of re locatable addresses to solve the problem of absolute addressing Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 4 IBM 704 and Fortran Fortran 0 1954 not implemented Fortran I 1957 Designed for the new IBM 704 which had index registers and floating point hardware This led to the idea of compiled programming languages Environment of development Computers were small and unreliable Applications were scientific No programming methodology or tools Machine efficiency was the most important concern Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 5 Fortran I Overview First implemented version of Fortran Names could have up to six characters Post test counting loop DO Formatted I O User defined subprograms Three way selection statement arithmetic IF No data typing statements No separate compilation Compiler released in April 1957 18 worker years of effort Programs larger than 400 lines rarely compiled correctly mainly due to poor reliability of 704 Code was very fast Quickly became widely used Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 6 Fortran I II IV Fortran I Distributed in 1958 Independent compilation Fixed the bugs Fortran IV Evolved during 1960 62 Explicit type declarations Logical selection statement Subprogram names could be parameters ANSI standard in 1966 Fortran 77 Became the new standard in 1978 Character string handling Logical loop control statement IF THEN ELSE statement Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 7 Fortran 90 and thereafter Fortran 90 Most significant changes from Fortran 77 Modules Dynamic arrays Pointers Recursion CASE statement Parameter type checking Fortran 95 relatively minor changes Fortran 2003 support for OOP procedure pointers interoperability with C Fortran 2008 blocks for local scopes coarrays Do Concurrent Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 8 Fortran Evaluation Highly optimizing compilers all versions before 90 Types and storage of all variables are fixed before run time Dramatically changed forever the way computers are used in Scientific and or Engineering Programming Still in Use Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 9 Functional



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