UT Dallas CS 4337 - #Sebesta ch01 - rev1 short (28 pages)

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#Sebesta ch01 - rev1 short



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#Sebesta ch01 - rev1 short

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Pages:
28
School:
University of Texas at Dallas
Course:
Cs 4337 - Organization of Programming Languages

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Chapter 1 Preliminaries Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages Increased ability to express ideas Improved background for choosing appropriate languages Increased ability to learn new languages Better understanding of significance of implementation Better use of languages that are already known Overall advancement of computing Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 2 Programming Domains Scientific applications Large numbers of floating point computations use of arrays Fortran Business applications Produce reports use decimal numbers and characters COBOL Artificial intelligence Symbols rather than numbers manipulated use of linked lists LISP Systems programming Need efficiency because of continuous use C Web Software Eclectic collection of languages markup e g HTML scripting e g PHP general purpose e g Java Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 3 Language Evaluation Criteria Readability the ease with which programs can be read and understood Writability the ease with which a language can be used to create programs Reliability conformance to specifications i e performs to its specifications Cost the ultimate total cost Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 4 Evaluation Criteria Readability Overall simplicity A manageable set of features and constructs Minimal feature and Minimal operator overloading Easy to read a program to understand and maintain Orthogonality A relatively small set of primitive constructs can be combined in a relatively small number of ways Every possible combination is legal Keywords 32 for C 63 for C 50 for Java 112 reserved words plus 120 keywords for Oracle Data types Adequate predefined data types Syntax considerations Identifier forms flexible composition Special words and methods of forming compound statements Form and meaning self descriptive or meaningful keywords Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 5 Evaluation Criteria Writability Simplicity and orthogonality Few constructs a small number of primitives a small set of rules for combining them Easy to remember and easy to use To reduce chance of misspelling or typo in programming Support for abstraction The ability to define and use complex structures or operations in ways that allow details to be ignored Expressivity A set of relatively convenient ways of specifying operations e g dot notation a b c Strength and number of operators and predefined functions e g to add various mixed type numbers Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 6 Evaluation Criteria Reliability Type checking Testing for type errors Exception handling Intercept run time errors and take corrective measures Aliasing Presence of two or more distinct referencing methods for the same memory location Readability and writability A language that does not support natural ways of expressing an algorithm will require the use of unnatural approaches and hence reduced reliability Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights



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