UT Dallas CS 4337 - #Sebesta pl10e ch16 logic prog (39 pages)

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#Sebesta pl10e ch16 logic prog



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#Sebesta pl10e ch16 logic prog

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Pages:
39
School:
University of Texas at Dallas
Course:
Cs 4337 - Organization of Programming Languages

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Chapter 16 Logic Programming Languages Chapter 16 Topics Introduction A Brief Introduction to Predicate Calculus Predicate Calculus and Proving Theorems An Overview of Logic Programming The Origins of Prolog The Basic Elements of Prolog Deficiencies of Prolog Applications of Logic Programming Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 2 Introduction Programs in logic languages are expressed in a form of symbolic logic Use a logical inferencing process to produce results Declarative rather that procedural Only specification of results are stated not detailed procedures for producing them Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 3 Proposition A logical statement that may or may not be true Consists of objects and relationships of objects to each other Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 4 Symbolic Logic Logic which can be used for the basic needs of formal logic Express propositions Express relationships between propositions Describe how new propositions can be inferred from other propositions Particular form of symbolic logic used for logic programming called predicate calculus Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 5 Object Representation Objects in propositions are represented by simple terms either constants or variables Constant a symbol that represents an object Variable a symbol that can represent different objects at different times Different from variables in imperative languages Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 6 Compound Terms Atomic propositions consist of compound terms Compound term one element of a mathematical relation written like a mathematical function Mathematical function is a mapping Can be written as a table Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 7 Parts of a Compound Term Compound term composed of two parts Functor function symbol that names the relationship Ordered list of parameters tuple Examples student jon like seth OSX like nick windows like jim linux Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 8 Forms of a Proposition Propositions can be stated in two forms Fact proposition is assumed to be true Query truth of proposition is to be determined Compound proposition Have two or more atomic propositions Propositions are connected by operators Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 9 Logical Operators Name Symbol Example Meaning negation a not a conjunction a b a and b disjunction a b a or b equivalence a b a is equivalent to b implication a b a b a implies b b implies a Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 10 Quantifiers Name Example Meaning universal X P For all X P is true existential X P There exists a value of X such that P is true Copyright 2012 Addison Wesley All rights reserved 1 11 Clausal Form Too many ways to state the same thing Use a standard form for propositions Clausal form B1 B2 Bn A1 A2 Am means if all the As are true then at least one B is true Antecedent right side Consequent left side



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