UCSB ENVS 106 - Lecture 10 Thinking in Systems Chapter 3 and 4_POST (27 pages)

Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 25, 26, 27 of 27 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

Lecture 10 Thinking in Systems Chapter 3 and 4_POST



Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 25, 26, 27 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Systems Metaphors The Language We Employ when discussing Brain as a muscle can grow develop become stronger requires exercise work etc vs Brain as a tool War on Cancer metaphor makes people more likely to support research but less likely to think about healthy lifestyles as a way to minimize risk Time in terms of spatial reasoning time s arrow Chapter 3 Why Systems Work So Well Resilience A measure of a system s ability to survive and persist within a variable environment Utilizes a rich structure of feedback loops that can work in different ways to restore after a perturbation Not the same as constancy over time Short term oscillations may be part of the system and part of its resiliency Can be hard to see unless you exceed the system s capacity overwhelming feedback loops Resilience in the Human Body Fends off thousands of microbial and larger threats Tolerates a wide range of temperature climate Tolerates wide variability in food supply Healing Learning Resilience in Ecosystems Multiple species serving similar functional roles producers primary secondary consumers Ecological Niches Evolution Adaptation Acclimation Population Dynamics and Reproduction strategies https en wikipedia org wiki Ecological niche Self Organization The capacity of a system to make its own structure more complex Can be sacrificed for productivity and stability reducing resilience as well Produces heterogeneity and sometimes unpredictability Self Organization From Simple Rules Simple Organizing Rules That Lead to SelfOrganizing Systems Basic organizing rules of DNA RNA and proteins are the basis for all life Agricultural revolution self organizing lifestyles in a single settled location Medieval Europe Theological and cosmological principles that built towns with Cathedrals at the center both physical and social structures God created the universe with the earth at its center the land with the castle at its center and humanity with the Church at its center Industrial Revolution God and morality are outmoded ideas people should be objective and scientific should The protein coding components of human genome is about 99 the same as the chimpanzee genome about 85 the same as the mouse genom e and about 50 the same as a banana s genom e Simple DNA replication structures lead tothis all sorts self organizing While to meofseems a stretch a complexity interpretation here is charitable that with religiosity as a leading factor in social organization towns will tend to have high resource use for Cathedrals and high social orientation around religious figures This maybe makes a little more sense The rise of scientism in Western culture does seem to be associated with industrialism and consumerism a lot of our activities are oriented around those Hierarchy Not Necessarily Authoritarian Hierarchy Self Organizing systems often generate hierarchy an arrangement of subsystems within systems Cell in liver is a subsystem of the organ a subsystem of the organism which is a subsystem of several other social systems family team music group etc Subsystems can generally manage themselves while serving the needs of the larger system with sometimes assistance from the larger system or other subsystems Hierarchies build resilience Can also increase efficiency by reducing the amount of information tracking necessary within the subsystems task minimizing feedback delays Managing subsystems might not require a great deal of lateral understanding or understanding of levels above or below For example a doctor can focus on a liver surgery without worrying about other organ subsystems heart or tongue higher levels your personality or lower levels your DNA Hierarchy Development and Evolution Person gets too much work and hires others to help The purpose of hierarchy is to allow originating subsystems to perform their jobs better Higher and lower subsystems of a system can forget the main task at hand Sub optimization Team members more interested in personal achievement Cells that begin to divide on their own cancer Students that seek grade maximization at the cost of academic integrity Corporation that bribes or otherwise influences government for its own advantage reduces the advantages of competitive markets Too much Central Control Micromanagement in a company or nonprofit Rule bound systems that forego the main task To be a highly functional system hierarchy must balance the welfare freedoms and responsibilities of the subsystems and total system there must be enough central control to achieve coordination toward the large system goal and enough autonomy to keep all subsystems flourishing functioning and self organizing Resilience self organization and hierarchy are three of the reasons dynamic systems can work so well Promoting or managing for these properties of a system can improve its ability to function well over the long term to be sustainable But watching how systems behave also can be full of surprises Chapter 4 Why Systems Surprise Us Three Truths About Systems Thinking 1 Everything we think we know about the world is a model Words maps statistics books databases equations computer programs 2 Models usually have a strong congruence with the world Nature people organizations we can use models fairly well 3 But models fall far short of representing the world fully Mistakes tracking variables bad conclusions bad assumptions The System Black Box We tend to focus on inputs and outputs Outputs A team wins A river floods The Dow Jones Industrial Average hits 10 000 Oil is discovered A forest is cut Events are the outputs moment by moment from the black box of the system Events can be spectacular but can also be a part of dynamic patterns of behavior harder to notice System thinkers want to see the bigger picture the patterns Event single occurrence input Behavior time graphs output patterns Structure Stocks flows feedback loops The Limitations of Economics Models Thermostat Analogy A key example of not understanding the structure of the system would be the financial crisis Key feedback regulatory mechanisms were gutted in the late 1990 s by the Clinton administration and congress see the Gramm Leach Bliley Act leading to reinforcing feedback in the financial system with perception delays about housing values This lead to the creation of a bubble in the economy a mismatch between perceived value of homes and actual values of them or actual states of the economy that would be the basis for the values of the homes Some economists


View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Lecture 10 Thinking in Systems Chapter 3 and 4_POST and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Lecture 10 Thinking in Systems Chapter 3 and 4_POST and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?