UCSB EEMB 2 - Lec #10 EEMB 2 SM17 1S (Evol. Thought) (1) (20 pages)

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Lec #10 EEMB 2 SM17 1S (Evol. Thought) (1)



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Lec #10 EEMB 2 SM17 1S (Evol. Thought) (1)

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Pages:
20
School:
University of California, Santa Barbara
Course:
Eemb 2 - Introductory Biology III
Unformatted text preview:

Evolution Evolution Change through space and time Biological Evolution Genetically based change in a line of descent over time descent with modification Individuals of populations show different forms of their traits The frequencies of different forms relative to one another can change over successive generations Common public perception of evolution is orthogenesis straight line Incorrect Branching Correct Development of Evolutionary Thought The earliest roots of modern evolutionary theory begins with origin myths superstition to explain the natural world Roots of western philosophy Aristotle 350 BC Created the Scala naturae a hierarchy of life Stoic Philosophers 1st century AD followers of Zeno humans free from passion recognized fossils as evidence of past life that had been destroyed by catastrophes Development of Evolutionary Thought Rise of Rome and Christianity A chain of being from lowest to highest forms each being was a separate link in the chain all links were designed forged at the same time at center of creation and were immutable Albertus Magnus 1300 AD removed humans from scale of nature Sir Thomas Aquinas 1300 AD humans are divine Homunculus theory soul transferred at fertilization Development of Evolutionary Thought Theory of creationism god created the earth and all life on it life was immutable and did not change the earth is young 6000 10 000 yrs Development of Evolutionary Thought Basic questions about life 1 Biogeography examination of global distribution of animals Observations many plants and animals are unique to isolated places certain species separated by great distances resemble one another Rhea South America Emu Australia Ostrich Africa Development of Evolutionary Thought Basic questions about life 1 Biogeography examination of the global distribution of animals Observations many plants and animals are unique to isolated places certain species separated by great distances resemble one another Questions How did so many species get from one point of creation to isolated places on earth What did the similarities and differences among them mean Development of Evolutionary Thought Questions about life 2 Comparative Morphology the study of similarities and differences plans between major groups Observations human arms whale flippers bat wings differ in size shape and function yet have similar locations in the body 21 3 4 5 in body 21 3 4 1 2 3 2 34 1 1 5 2 4 5 3 1 2 3 Development of Evolutionary Thought Questions about life 2 Comparative Morphology the study of similarities and differences in body plans between major groups Observations human arms whale flippers bat wings differ in size shape function yet have similar locations in the body backbone pelvic girdle coccyx bones Questions Why are some animals that are so different in some features so much alike in others Why were there parts with no functions thighbone attached to pelvic girdle small bone attached to pelvic girdle Development of Evolutionary Thought Questions about life 3 Geology Fossil remains of plants and animals Observations distinct layers of rock contained distinct fossils deep layers contained simple fossils and shallow layers contained similar but more complex fossils Questions What did this increasing complexity represent Were these these fossils layers separated in time Could these organisms be related Development of Evolutionary Thought Questions about life Findings from Biogeography Comparative Morphology and Geology did not fit well with beliefs of creationism Novel Hypotheses 1 If dispersal of all species from a center of creation was not possible because of barriers then species may have originated in more than one place 2 If organisms were not created in perfect states then species may have been modified over time Development of Evolutionary Thought Georges Louis Leclerc de Buffon early 1700 s life was not immutable but changed by degeneration environment influences modifications earth was old 70 000 years Hid his views in a 44 volume natural history book series Erasmus Darwin late 1700 s competition play role in species formation not creation animals change in response to changes in the environment offspring inherit these changes life on earth could have descended from a common ancestor Development of Evolutionary Thought James Hutton Charles Lyell Geologists mid 1800 s Theory of Uniformitarianism Uniformity changes in the earth occurred slowly gradually and at uniform rates age of earth determined by sedimentation rates earth was old 1 2 million years William Smith Paleontologist mid 1800 s layer of fossils in the Cliffs of Dover Great Britain linked age of rocks to age of fossils Development of Evolutionary Thought Georges Cuvier anatomist biologist mid 1800 s Species go extinct due to catastrophes Theory of Catastrophism survivors not new species fossils represent species that were destroyed Jean Baptiste de Lamarck mid 1800 s Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics traits environmental pressures and internal needs bring about permanent changes in body form and function Behavioral changes modified traits Ex Giraffe process of orthogenesis A B C D Development of Evolutionary Thought Charles Darwin biologist mid 1800 s 1825 attended University of Edinburgh medicine transferred to Cambridge clergy and graduated in 1831 At 22 years old took a job as ships naturalist 5 years voyage 1831 1836 H M S Beagle Survey of geography oceanography geology biology Development of Evolutionary Thought Charles Darwin biologist mid 1800 s 3 Major Findings 1 As environment changes so does species composition 2 Fossils are related to organisms today but are also structurally different 3 Galapagos islands island animals were related to mainland species but locally different in form and function Ex Finches Development of Evolutionary Thought Charles Darwin biologist mid 1800 s Questions 1 If the earth was very old then wasn t that enough time for species to evolve in diverse ways 2 If so how did they evolve 1856 began writing Thomas Malthus 1798 Essay on the Principle of Population geometric growth of populations All populations have the capacity to produce more individuals than the environment can support more Alfred Russel Wallace 1858 Independently wrote 2 page letter summarizing all of Darwin s ideas 2 papers published 1858 Darwin Wallace in the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of London Darwin 1859 published book On the Origin of Species Development of Evolutionary Thought Theory of


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