UCSB EEMB 171 - Quiz 1 2016B Key (1) (4 pages)

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Quiz 1 2016B Key (1)



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Quiz 1 2016B Key (1)

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Pages:
4
School:
University of California, Santa Barbara
Course:
Eemb 171 - ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES
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Your Name EEMB ES 171 Winter 2014 Quiz 1 Read each question carefully Use the back if you need to 1 6 points What is soil texture Texture is only the mix of sand silt and clay mineral particles 2 12 points Why do ecosystem ecologists generally work with functional groups or growth forms of plants rather than species Because we are interested in biogeochemical processes and functions Many species of plants are functionally equivalent i e Mediterranean annual grasses all behave in very similar ways Also there are often too many species to consider individually we need to condense down into a manageable number of groups So full 12 point answer should hit both the idea of function and of numbers Perfect answer that only considers one aspect is maximum 8 points 3 12 points Briefly define the difference between Resistance and Resilience Is the concept of resilience relevant in the face of ongoing increases in global temperature Resistance is the ability of a system to resist change in the face of disturbance Resilience is the ability of a system to recover to the initial state following a disturbance Climate change is an ongoing and growing pressure so a system can t truly be resilient in the face of it because the disturbance is not going away A system can be resistant and avoid changing substantially in the face of the constant stress of climate change 6 points for adequately explaining the difference between resistance and resilience 6 points for getting the connection to climate change Your Name 4 16 points ClORPT is an important formula in ecosystem science A 10 What do the letters stand for Very briefly why are they each important Cl Climate Rainfall and Temp drive essentially all aspects of ecosystem function O Organisms those that have access to the site Control the community composition R Relief the physical structure of the landscape that regulates energy input erosion etc P Parent material the geological substrate an ecosystem develops on Controls the ultimate availability of mineral nutrients the texture of the soils hydrology etc T Time Time controls how completely a system develops soil weathering plant succession etc 2 points for explaining each term B 6 If you were going to design a large scale field experiment to analyze the influence of parent material on ecosystem structure and function how would you use the ClORPT concept to guide developing that experiment You would use ClORPT to help try to find sites where to the extent possible only P varied So you d look for a region in an area with a single climate zone where the same plants have access to the site you d pick sites of similar slope and aspect etc E g find areas in the hills above Santa Barbara with different rock types 5 12 points Many plants are highly tolerant of aboveground herbivory They get between 50 and 90 of their leaves eaten and they grow back quickly However very few plants are tolerant of belowground herbivory They get 20 25 of their root system eaten and they die Why do you think there is such a strong difference in responses to above and belowground herbivory Leaves are the source of C and plants retain reserves in their stems So if foliage gets eaten they can continue to photosynthesize with the leaves that are left and can use existing reserves to produce new ones To do this though they need nutrients and water which an intact root system remains quite capable of supplying But if the root system is disrupted the demand for water remains high Yet the root system is now not able to provide enough and the plant becomes water stressed that limits photosynthesis and the ability to supply C to produce new roots The plant goes into a death spiral Your Name 6 14 points Match up the specific ecological hydrological terms with their closest analogies from economics and life A AET Actual payment Monthly Income B PET Credit card bill Credit card bill C Rainfall Monthly income An inheritance from a rich uncle D Soil water storage Savings account Actual payment to the credit card company E Groundwater Aquifer Inheritance Size of your savings account Briefly explain each analogy AET PET and Rainfall should be obvious Soil water storage is renewable and can rise and fall with the seasons and shift in income and expense That is equivalent to a bank account A groundwater aquifer is deep storage of ancient water It doesn t easily recharge Hence it is equivalent to an inheritance 1 5 points for getting each match correct 6 5 points total for explaining the logic 7 14 points total Or 8 You are doing a water balance on an area The following values are for the summer only Briefly explain your answers PET 1200 mm Rainfall 1600 mm Soil water holding capacity 300 mm Soil water at the beginning of summer 100 mm a 8 points What is AET for this summer AET Well PET is less than rainfall So AET PET 1200 mm b 6 points What is streamflow Streamflow Rainfall AET change in soil storage There are 400 mm of excess rain after accounting for AET Soil can hold an additional 200 mm of water Ergo 200 mm will run off If you forget to account for changing soil storage the maximum possible score is 2 Your Name 8 14 points You are studying the productivity of a particular plant You set up a factorial experiment with treatments of added nitrogen N phosphorus P and N P plus a control Then you measure growth The data is in the table Unfortunately your research assistant lost one set of samples Treatment Control N P N P Growth g 5 8 Lost data 12 A 8 points If Liebig s Law were strictly true for this plant what would you predict that growth in the P treatment would be Why Liebig s law says that ONLY one nutrient at a time may be limiting Since adding N alone increased growth that means that if Liebig s law is true P alone can have no effect Thus the P treatment would have to have growth exactly equal to the control 5 B 6 points Your technician goes back to his lab notes and says that he thinks the growth data for the P treatment was 10 How would that change your interpretation of the nutrient needs of this plant What would that say about Liebig s law Since in fact each N and P increased growth somewhat then the plant was simultaneously colimited by both N and P This violates Liebig s law and indicates that it does not hold in this case


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