UCSB EEMB 171 - Lecture 6-8 2015 (1) (77 pages)

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Lecture 6-8 2015 (1)



Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77 of actual document.

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Lecture 6-8 2015 (1)

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Pages:
77
School:
University of California, Santa Barbara
Course:
Eemb 171 - ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES

Unformatted text preview:

Human Activity Direct The Jenny State Factor Model ClORPTH Soil Ecosystem f Cl O R P T The fundamental independent variables driving ecosystem development Human Activity Indirect ClORPTH Species introductions Climate Change Possum in New Zealand Human Activity Indirect Nitrogen deposition ClORPTH ClORPTH Disturbance Any physical force such as fire wind flood extremely cold temperature and epidemic that damages natural systems and results in the mortality of organisms or loss of biomass Smith 1996 Ecology Field Biology Relatively discrete event in time and space that alters the structure of populations communities and ecosystems and causes changes in resource availability or the physical environment Chapin et al pg 379 ClORPTH Climate variability extremes come from disturbance 1999 Boundary Waters Canoe Area 2008 Santa Barbara 2005 Santa Barbara 2007 Manitoba These are common and critical in structuring ecosystems Disturbance time ClORPTH frequency distribution of disturbance in Northern forests Small disturbances are common Large disturbances are rare Frelich and Lorimer 1991 Ecological Monographs 61 145 164 Disturbance and space ClORPTH Consider fire in a10 m patch of forest 2 a 1 000 Km2 of forest source http 3 bp blogspot com CjwpWolRwVI Sj61QPUCNBI AAAAAAAABL4 NgD6Z4dBoQw s400 P6217595 JPG http www dendronautics com USERIMAGES canopy img0086 jpg Disturbance climate Arctic drunken forests ClORPTH source http upload wikimedia org wikipedia commons 7 7f 20070801 forest jpg what is soil Soil A soil a complex material with natural structure the basis of all terrestrial processes soil processes control plant growth and ecology Water Nutrients net primary productivity NPP resource allocation Despite this many ecologists see soil as external to the system WHY 1 Ecologists have traditionally started as botanists biologists 2 Soil development is slow 100 s 1000 s of years key characteristics of soil Texture sand silt clay Organic matter content Chemical composition mineralogy pH etc Physical structure soil development Vermont California New York Wisconsin Delaware Iowa Georgia Puerto Rico generic soil profile Why care about soil Regulating water Controls where rain snowmelt and irrigation water dissolved solutes goes Sustaining plant and animal life The diversity and productivity of living things depends on soil Filtering potential pollutants Soil minerals microbes filter buffer degrade immobilize detoxify organic inorganic materials e g industrial byproducts atmospheric pollution Cycling nutrients Carbon nitrogen phosphorus and many other nutrients are stored transformed and cycled through soil Supporting structures Societies depend upon stable soils for buildings development agriculture Key things to know about soil Texture How much clay sand silt Mineralogy What type of clay Structure How is the soil put together soil texture sand 2 mm 50 m silt 50 m 2 m clay 2 m source http school discovery com schooladventures soil teacher tips html soil texture



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