UCSB EEMB 171 - Lecture 1-3 2016 (2) (53 pages)

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Lecture 1-3 2016 (2)



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Lecture 1-3 2016 (2)

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Pages:
53
School:
University of California, Santa Barbara
Course:
Eemb 171 - ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES
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EEMB ES 171 Ecosystem Processes Professor Josh Schimel E mail Schimel lifesci ucsb edu Office Noble Hall 1108 Teaching Assistants Shannon Hagerty Eric Slessarev E mail Shannon hagerty lifesci ucsb edu Eric slessarev lifesci ucsb edu Textbook Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology Chapin Matson Vitousek 2012 Course Expectations Listen ask questions gain an ecosystems perspective Read assigned material before sections Section write ups will be typed grammatically sound etc Course assignments will be handed in on time beginning of class period or section no exceptions what is this Grand Themes in Ecosystem Science Grand Themes in Ecosystem Science what is this source Grand Themes in Ecosystem Science Grand Themes in Ecosystem Science source http www amazonrainforestnews com 2011 08 new petition to save amazon as newlaws html what causes the squiggle Grand Themes in Ecosystem Science carbon C storage is determined by the Grand Themes in net balance between C fixation release Ecosystem Science CO2 CHNO CO2 image modified from http www nasa gov centers goddard earthandsun frozen north html photosynthesis occurs in oceans too Grand Themes in Ecosystem Science source http dsc discovery com news 2007 12 26 ocean algae zoom html 900 g m2 y 57 g m y 2 Which terrestrial ecosystem is this most like 300 g m2 y 5 g m2 y 32 g m2 y the global C cycle majority of organic C is stored in the ocean land Grand Themes in Ecosystem Science what are the biophysical feedbacks between ecosystems and the climate system Ecosystem processes in a changing world Two perspectives 1 BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Different scales energy transfer through ecosystems 2 HUMAN ACTIVITIES How do people alter ecosystem processes How does this affect the climate system Physical sciences Chemical sciences Biological sciences Ecosystem Science concepts Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystem Physiology vs Population Community Ecology Ecosystem Anatomy Ecosystem Science concepts Ecosystem Ecology whole ecosystems Community Ecology communities of interacting species Population Ecology dynamics of individual species populations Ecosystem Science concepts Ecosystem Ecology whole ecosystems Physiological Ecology Functioning of individual organisms Biochemistry Pathways and control of biological reactions Fundamental Principles of Ecosystem Ecology Law of conservation of mass matter Elements cycle 1st Law of Thermodynamics Conservation of energy 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Entropy increases Energy spirals It may be convenient to designate control watersheds in experimental studies as mature or climax in terms of a vegetational cycle but there should be no confusion between mature or climax in a phytosociological sense steady state in the ecosystem sense Vitousek and Reiners 1975 What does this mean Climax forest Steady state flows in flows out Ecosystem Science concepts Core issues in ecosystem ecology How do ecosystems function Pathways kinetics Flow paths of energy and elements What are the rates of material energy fluxes What controls those rates Ecosystem Science concepts Core issues in ecosystem ecology Questions are not organism focused Why do clear cut forests flush nitrate NO3 Why is the tundra a net sink for carbon C How will nitrogen N deposition alter forest production Why do wetlands retain so much N Answers may be organism focused but consider species differences only when necessary Ecosystems contain too many organisms to consider the influence of all of them Ecosystem Science A brief history The general idea among biologists at large seemed to be that ecology dealt with a blow by blow account of a day in the life of a cockroach woodlouse or sparrow and the notion that it could study such questions as what does the ecosystem do with the incident solar energy tended to be greeted with blank stares of incomprehension whatever was one talking about C H Waddington 1975 The Evolution of IBP Modern ecosystem science bridges scales of space time Dealing with these is a challenge challenge Ecosystem Science Temporal considerations Process dynamics over time Gains Ecosystem is losing material 6 4 2 Losses Process Rate 8 0 2 4 0 10 20 30 Time 40 50 Ecosystem Science Temporal considerations Process dynamics over time Gains 6 4 2 Losses Process Rate 8 Ecosystem is gaining material 0 2 4 0 10 20 30 Time 40 50 Ecosystem Science Temporal considerations Process dynamics over time Gains Ecosystem is changing rapidly 6 4 2 Losses Process Rate 8 0 2 4 0 10 20 30 Time 40 50 Ecosystem Science Temporal considerations Process dynamics over time Gains 6 linear fit 4 2 Losses Process Rate 8 0 linear sine curve 2 4 0 10 20 30 40 Time Process rate X1 t X2 sin t Random 3 50 Ecosystem Science Temporal considerations Linking temporal spatial scales AGRICULTURE Influence global climate DEFORESTATION Influence H2O supply ACID RAIN Influence forest productivity BIOCHEMICAL CONTROLS Influence bedrock weathering global ecosystem 5 000 km watershed 10 km forest 1 km endolithic Ecosystem 1 mm Space and species influence on ecosystems Space and species influence on ecosystems Boggy soils conifers Well drained upland soils sugar maple Well drained upland soils oaks Young soils conifers Ecosystem map of Blackhawk Island study site What controls plant productivity across scales Sugar maple Red oak Red Pine Growth Species level Trees of different growth rates relative to soil N availability RO SM RP R2 0 5 Fast growers R2 0 5 R2 0 5 Slow growers N availability Growth of each species is strongly N limited So N supply explains productivity What controls plant productivity across scales Plot level Mixed communities growing with different soil N availability Productivity vs N availability R2 0 5 Little relationship Productivity vs community composition R2 0 5 Good relationship Growth RO SM RP N availability Differences in growth potential of different species can outweigh variability in N supply Species level Trees of different growth rates relative to soil N availability Growth RO SM RP N availability Plot level Mixed communities growing with different soil N availability Differences in growth potential of different species can outweigh variability in N supply What controls plant productivity across scales River Landscape level integrates controls on productivity Well drained uplands High productivity Maple oak dominated fast growers Sandy river terraces Low productivity Pine dominated slow growers On a large scale there is a correlation of fertility community Sandy poor soils low


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