U of M ANTH 1001 - Midterm 2 study guide (3 pages)

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Midterm 2 study guide



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Midterm 2 study guide

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Pages:
3
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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Primates Traits Shared derived traits of all primates petrosal auditory bulla Primitive Generalized dentition 5 digits per hand Clavicle present Specializations Forward facing eyes Reduced sense of smell Grasping hands feet Nails instead of claws Slow life histories Usually single births Big brains Anatomy Diet diet is reflected in the size of the incisors the shape of the molar cusps and the shape of the intestines In addition primate diets body size are correlated with smaller primates favoring insects and gums and larger primates favoring fruits and leaves Locomotion primates exhibit a diversity of locomotor styles that can be organized according to orthograde pronograde and arboreal terrestrial dichotomies Classification Strepsirrhines Lorises Lemurs Haplorhines Tarsiers Platyrrhini Catarrhini Cercopithecoidea Colobinae Cercopithecinae Hominoidea Hylobatidae Hominidae Mating systems Types Monogamy 1 M 1 F Gibbons Titi monkeys Polygyny 1 M 1 F Hamadryas baboons gorillas Polyandry 1 M 1 F Marmosets Polygynandry 1 M 1 F Olive baboons chimpanzees Humans are unusual among primates in displaying all mating system types owing to the emphasis on the biparental pair bond of one male and one female needed to take care of an altricial baby Anatomical correlates of social organization Canine size dimorphism High 1 M F and 1 M 1 F Low 1 M 1 F Body size dimorphism High 1 M F and 1 M 1 F Low 1 M 1 F Males vs females Males Interested in mating paternity certainty no infant care Competition through weaponry ornaments and vocalizations Competition over access to females Strategies Invest in fighting ability Invest in fertilization ability Mate guarding aggression Females Interested in resource acquisition mate choice infant care Competition through attractiveness ornaments Competition over access to food Strategies Dishonest signaling through sexual swellings Recruit male female friends to form alliances Primate social organization and mating systems reproductive strategies are influenced by resource density and distribution patchy vs even Primates form large groups because Larger groups are better than smaller groups to gain access to food Larger groups suffer less predation than smaller groups Male and female primates frequency exhibit dominance hierarchies High status within such hierarchies provide the following benefits Increased access to mating opportunities Higher number of offspring Offspring matures more rapidly Offspring exhibits higher survivorship Darwinian Fitness is the sum of direct and indirect fitness which is mediated by the level of relatedness between individuals within a group i e as reflected by Hamilton s Rule and Kin Selection Life history intelligence Primates have large brains relative to their body size Large brains could have been selected for 1 foraging ability Behavioral Flexibility Hypothesis and 2 navigation of interactions with fellow group members in the complex social environment Social Intelligence Hypothesis Evaluation of



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