GSU CRJU 2200 - Social Science Exam 2 Study Guide (13 pages)

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Social Science Exam 2 Study Guide



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Social Science Exam 2 Study Guide

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Pages:
13
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Crju 2200 - Soc Sci & Am Crime Problem
Soc Sci & Am Crime Problem Documents
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Exam 2 Study Guide Oct 2 4 Macro Level Explanations Reading discussion questions What are some limitations of pathological explanations Why do we need to consider the role of the social environment o Levels of explanation Individual Social psychological Culture and social structure o Limitations of pathological explanations 1 Deficits traits are not a perquisite for offending 2 Pathological explanations may apply best to high rate life course persistent offending 3 The influence of such traits tends to be conditioned by the social environment So we need to consider environmental factors o Why do we need to consider environmental factors The environment influences behavior Social Learning Theory How does social learning theorists explain crime and delinquency How has social learning theory been used to guide prevention efforts in the school What was the results o Social learning theory Delinquent behavior is learned like any other behavior it occurs to the extent it is rewarded and reinforced Differential association o Influence of delinquent peers Differential reinforcement o External and internal rewards External money and respect Internal feeling that adrenaline rush Modeling and imitation o We lean by watching others Neutralizing beliefs rationalizations and justifications for crime o Denial of the victim o Drug and alcohol use Vandalism Reduction Experiment Intervention involved o New instructional materials o Minimizing punitive treatment o Maximizing positive reinforcement Result a decrease in overall delinquency in target schools This was successful 1 How would you summarize the main argument s in Anderson s Code of the Street regarding the causes of violence among inner city youth a Inclination for violence springs from the circumstances of life i Lack of jobs stigma of race fallout from drug use drug trafficking and the resulting alienation and lack of hope for the future 1 Young people are at special risk b Two categories of people the decent and the street i The decent 1 Inner city residents a Accept mainstream values and fully instill them in their children b Better off financially c Value hard work and self reliance d Willing to sacrifice for their children e Harbor hopes for a better future for their children f Many go to church and have a strong interest in education g Parents tend to be strict in their child rearing practices encouraging children to respect authority and walk on the moral line h Don t get in to trouble and be on the lookout for bad people and situations i Be polite and considerate ii The street 1 Code of the streets a Set of informant rules governing interpersonal public behavior b Provides the proper comportment and proper way to respond if challenged c Heart of the code is respect i Respect has to be earned and can easily be lost so it must be guarded d A cultural adaption to the profound lack of faith in the police and the judicial system 2 Street parents a Lack of consideration for people b Superficial sense of family and community c Some are unable to cope with the physical and emotional demands of parenthood d Aggressively socialize children into the code e Financial resources are limited and misused f Disorganized limited understanding of priorities and consequences g Self destructive behaviors h Complicated relationships i Lack of well paying jobs j k l m n Persistence of racial discrimination The need to exercise a measure of control and to lash out Lack of patience Aggressive with children Children learn to fight and handle problems with violence at a young age i Survival itself let alone respect cannot be taken for granted you have to fight for your place in the world c Key observations i Inner city violence is fueled by a code of conduct that prescribes violent counterattack to shows of disrespect ii Central to this code is the belief that it is necessary to fight back otherwise one is at risk of being identified as an easy target d Social learning i The importance of the code is learned early in life and associated behaviors are rewarded and reinforced e Need for self protection i Perceived need for a tough reputation to avoid victimization f Status frustration and status insecurity i The street code is attractive to young men of low status because developing a tough reputation on the streets provides an alternative source of status and respect g Summary i Structural disadvantage perceived lack of opportunity the persistent threat of violence and related factors foster the development of the code ii The code fuels high levels of violence iii Young people feel pressure to observe the code even if they don t agree with it iv Empirical studies have found support for these observations Evidence is consistent with Anderson s claims 2 What policy implications follow from the Code of the Street If Anderson is correct what could should be done to reduce youth violence a Youth are uncertain about how long they are going to live and believe that they could die violently at any time They accept this faith and live on the edge So nothing intimidates them i This fearlessness has implications for the criminal justice system 1 They have little to lose by going to prison a Prison will toughen them up and only enhance their street cred b Anderson observed that i Some young people exhibit a sense of featurelessness and anticipate an early death ii This fact may help to explain behavior that appears senseless or irrational iii Anticipation of an early death may help to explain why offenders are fearless iv Threats of arrest jail or prison may have little impact on those who anticipate a shot life 1 Little to lose v A sense of featurelessness encourages a focus on the here and now and a disregard for future consequences 1 This encourages a nihilistic attitude and crime c Possibilities for intervention i For children traumatized by community violence exposure provide support for mental health counseling ii Foster positive expectations for the future youth mentoring programs iii Hospitalization as a point of intervention for youth violence workers BS goes away when you are close to death 1 These are individual level approaches 2 Larger challenge is to address the community level factors that promote violence 3 According to the authors of A Society Organized for Crime what is the dark side of the American Dream How and why does it foster a high rate of violent crime a Behavior is a product of the social organization b The American dream i The dream of


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