GSU PSYC 1100 - Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide (14 pages)

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Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide



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Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide

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Pages:
14
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Psyc 1100 - Intro to Biopsyc
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Biological Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Fall 2017 READ POWERPOINTS Lecture 5 Reproduction and Sexual Selection Secondary sexual characteristics o Traits that serve no purpose in survival per se but reflect competitive ability and attractiveness to mates Charles Darwin Appear around puberty Sexual selection o A form of natural selection acting on variation in the ability of individuals to compete with others of their sex and to attract members of the opposite sex Competition over access to mates Stronger in males Selection for choice of mates Stronger in females o Idea common e o Type of natural selection that is used to explain attractiveness and competition to mates Male male competition o Greater variation in reproductive success than females o The losers lose big time o Males are less choosy o Males competition for access to female Strong Female choice o Females bear the energic burden of pregnancy and lactation o Reproductive potential The maximum number of offspring an individual can produce Lower in females than in males o Female choosing mates Strong Variation in reproductive success o Passing of genes onto the next generation in a way that they can also pass on those genes Higher in males than females o Higher in males vary in species and population o Reproductive successes amount of offspring o Greater variation more male male competition Males are larger than females o Currency for natural selection Variation in reproductive potential o The maximum number of offspring an individual can produce Lower in females than in males o Higher in males than females variants Operational sex ratio o m Sm f Sf M number of males Sm period when males are ready to mate F number of females Sf period when females are ready to mate Predicts greater male male competition o The number of sexually active male over sexually active female Higher higher competition Lower low competition o Predicter of male male competition o Related to polygamy Mating systems o Monogamy One partner o Polygamy multiple partners Polyandry One female mates with more than one male Polygyny Males mate with multiple females Promiscuity General and culturally loaded term for having multiple sexual partners Polygyny threshold model o Monogamy and polygyny as related to habitat quality Fitness and territory quality Fitness is how well something is doing o Offspring survival reproductive success Amount of habitat quality increase that is required to increase or equate the fitness of the monogamous or polygynous female o Gordon O Ryan Reproductive fitness with habitat quality First or second mate If a female is sharing a territory with a male and another female if habitat quality is high you can increase fitness The equal of habitat and fitness Sexual dimorphism o When the sexes differ in body or canine size o Usually males are larger o Provides an indirect indicator of the degrees of effective polygyny or the amount of male to male competition o Body size is greatest in single male groups lowest n monogamous o Canine size greatest in single male and multi male groups lowest in monogamous o Relative teste size greatest in groups with multiple males Caveats Phylogenetic factors o Same size in male and female Lemurs Social factors o Competition is not fighting ritualized swims or dances o Females can be larger than male Turtles or seals Ecological factors o Ground life Monkeys o How males and females differ Body size canine size Social system Sperm competition o When females mate with more than one male testes size and sperm per ejaculate in males increase o Relative teste size highest in multi male multi female groups moderate in monogamous groups and lowest in single male groups o Sperm plugs Prevent sperm from other males from penetrating o Humans Relatively few signs of significant sperm competition o Females mate with multiple males near ovulation Males have very large testes to produce a lot of sperm Sperm plug part of the semen makes a plus so sperm of other males can t penetrate o Sperm competition Competition of sperm to fertilize sperm Missing from the study guide Male primates may differ from females in the same species Larger body size larger canine more elaborate coloration Human males and females differ in some traits Males moderately larger canines similar in size sex specific characters that appear at puberty And males also differ from females in many non primates Antlers of male deer tail of a male peacock a mane of a male lion bright coloration of a male cardinal The extinct Irish elk Huge antlers why o Because of allometric growth Intrasexual competition Competition among members of the same sex Predictions Ovulating females are limiting resources for male reproduction Reproductive mistakes are costlier to females Female factors that influence male competition Grouping breeding season interbirth interval breeding synchrony if yes difficult for one male to monopolize humans lack breeding season or obvious signs of ovulation Hormones Chemicals released by glands which influence behavior of other distant cells Bind to target receptors and initiate changes in the associated cells Marmosets New world monkeys with cooperative breeding system Males help carry and feed infants High reproductive rate o Females give birth to twins multiple times per year Hormonal influences on male marmoset parental behavior High levels of testosterone when exposed to scent of sexually active female Reduced testosterone when exposed to the scent of their infant Prolactin levels inversely related to testosterone levels Human males exposed to infants show reduced testosterone and increases prolactin Oxytocin and Vasopressin Linked with pair bond formation and infant care behaviors in female and male rodents marmosets and humans Monogamous prairie voles will abandon their comparatively faithful ways when oxytocin and vasopressin are blocked They have a large number of receptors for these hormones compared to the polygynous monotint vole workers have implicated differences in specific genes as an underlying factor To sum How does human mating behavior compare and contrast with nonhuman animals Competition usually between males and mate choice usually by females Sexual selection helps explain physical and behavioral differences between males and females of the same species Lecture 6 Evolution and Behavior Social biology o The biological study of behavior Biology of behavior Evolutionary psychology o Is closely related to sociobiology


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