GSU GEOL 1122K - Study Guide Exam 1 (12 pages)

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Study Guide Exam 1



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Study Guide Exam 1

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Pages:
12
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Geol 1122k - Introductory Geosciences Ii
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Biopsychology Study Guide for Exam 1 Chapter 1 Biological Psychology Introduction LOOK AT SLIDES AGAIN What is biological psychology Combines biology and psychology Biology is the study of life Psychology is the study of the mind The study of the physiological evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience o A natural science The scientific method Generate a hypothesis Test the hypothesis If the hypothesis is supported test again o If the hypothesis is rejected generate a new hypothesis Holistic and reductionist approaches Holistic Holistic Looking at the whole picture Reductionist Reductionism reducing a phenomenon to its component parts The good allows a description of the mechanism underlying a phenomenon The bad may cause someone to lose the track of the big picture o Necessary for scientific progress Necessary to the establishment of evolution Tinbergen s four questions Behavioral research questions Physiological How are motor activities activated The chemistry of the body and its influence on behavior o Proximate mechanisms Describes here and now Ontogenetic How does an animal s behavior change throughout it s life Development o Proximate mechanisms Describes here and now Function How does a behavior promote survival and reproduction Adaption o Ultimate evolutionary mechanisms Describes why in geological time Phylogeny how does an animal s behavior compare with other species Origins of behavior o Ultimate evolutionary mechanisms Describes why in a geological time Chapter 2 Evolutionary Theory What is scientific theory A theory is a general principle supported by substantial evidence offered to provide an explanation of observed facts and as a basis for future discussions or investigations Not the same as the rigorous scientific definition Evolution Change over time Evidence form medicine genetics fossils and biogeography speaks to the reality of evolution Microevolution Short term changes within a population Has been observed Macroevolution Long term changes and the appearance of new species Has withstood repeated testing Historical figures important in the development of evolutionary theory KNOW MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS 1 Archbishop James Ussher Used the old testament to determine the exact time of the creation 2 William Paley Natural Theology Found predictions in nature evidence of design Evolutionary adaption 3 Anaximander The first evolutionist Life arose in water Humans arose from fish like creatures 4 Empedocles Speculated a natural selection like process on strange creatures in the past 5 Aristotle Life arranged in a scale of perfection Discussed but REJECTED a natural selection like process 6 Zhuang Zhou Nature in perpetual flux 7 Nasir al Din al Tusi Accepted evolution discussed variation and kinship of nonliving matter plants and animals 8 John Ray Observed that plants and animals can be grouped via their ability or nonability to reproduce with one another Distinguished groups through comparative anatomy 9 Carl Linnaeus Systema Naturae A classification of plants and animals Standardized the use of genus and species Father of taxonomy 10 Jean Baptiste Lamarck Accepted evolution Use and disuse The inheritance of acquired characters to explain evolution 11 George Cuvier Concept of extinction to explain why fossils organisms are no longer around Supported catastrophism not evolution 12 Charles Lyell Father of modern geology Proposed that slow acting forces drive geological change Uniformitarianism Deep time allowed the necessary time required for evolutionary change 13 Thomas Malthus Principle of Population Warned that human population increase would exhaust food supply Wallace and Darwin extended this concept of limited resources 14 Alfred Russel Wallace Father of biogeography Wallace s line separates two regions Collected animals in Amazon and Asia Describe evolution as a process driven by competition and natural selection Poor family interest in natural history Made money from collecting specimens Travel with Henry Walter Bates in brazil and Indonesia In a Indonesia realized that earth will fall unequally on variable species Lass favored varieties will become extinct Sent ideas to Darwin Darwin had a similar idea but did not publish it Papers were presented jointly in 1858 15 Charles Darwin Independently conceived the process of natural selection Wrote on the origin of species Wealthy family studied medicine and theology Strong and has a interest in natural history 5 year journey around the world on the HMS Beagle o In south America he found fossils similar to living animals o Studied living forms to get evidence of a common ancestry o Galapagos islands Australia and new Zealand After the beagle he conceive the descent with modification o Studied animal breeding read Malthus and wrote the species of origins 16 Thomas Henry Huxley Defended the theory of evolution by natural selection Evidence of mans place in nature Natural selection The path In 1858 Wallace and Darwin proposed a mechanism natural selection to explain evolutionary change They did not come up with THE theory of evolution Many early thinkers influenced them Among individuals there is competition for resources Individuals differ from one another Biological variation More individuals are born than survive to reproduce among those that live there is variation in how many offspring they have Reproductive success Fitness Individuals who possesses favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce Parents transmit traits to offspring Genetics in the mechanism of transmission although neither Wallace or Darwin knew this Slower than artificial selection Requires no guiding force other than the environment and no specific goal In order for Natural Selection to occur The trait in questions must have a genetic basis There must be genetic variation in a trait Adaption o An evolutionary shift in response to environmental change Artificial selection The breeding of domestic plants and animals Human guiding force Occurs faster Requires a guiding force Scopes monkey trial ACLU case of the Butler Act Banned the teaching of evolution in public schools Clarence Darrow for the defense William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution Scopes was convicted The fine was waived Law upheld until the 1960 s The creationist movement is still active Chapter 3 Cell Biology Genetics Genotype Genetic makeup TT Tt tt Phenotype Outward characteristics a product of genetics and the environment Tall Short Prokaryote


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