GSU GEOL 1122K - Geology Test 1 Definitions (7 pages)

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Geology Test 1 Definitions



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Geology Test 1 Definitions

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Pages:
7
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Geol 1122k - Introductory Geosciences Ii
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Geology Definitions for Test 1 Prelude Core The dense iron rich center of Earth Crust The rock that makes up the outermost layer of Earth Earth System The global interconnecting web of physical and biological phenomena involving the solid Earth the hydrosphere and the atmosphere Geologic time scale A scale that describes the intervals of geological time Geologist The scientist who studies geology Geology The study of the Earth including our planets composition behavior and history Gravity The attractive force that one mass exerts on another the magnitude depends on the size of the objects and the distance between them Hypothesis An educated guess Lithosphere The relatively rigid non flowable outer 100 to 150 km thick layer of Earth constituting the crust and the top part of the mantle Mantle The thick layer of rock below the Earth s crust and above the core Plate One of about 20 distinct places of the relatively ridged lithosphere Science The use of observation experiment and calculation to explain how nature operates and scientists are people who study and try to understand natural phenomena Scientific Law Concise statements that completely describe a specific relationship or phenomena Scientific Method A sequence of steps for systematically analyzing problems in a way that leads to verified results Shatter cone Small cone shaped fractures formed by the shock of a meteorite impact Theory A scientific idea supported by an abundance of evidence that has passed many tests and failed none Theory of plate tectonics The theory that the outer layer of the Earth the lithosphere consists of separate plates that move with respect to one another Chapter 1 Accretionary disk The disk shaped body of gas ice and dust onto which matter falls it ultimately evolves into a solar system Asteroid One of the fragments of solid material left over from planet formation or produced by a collision of planetesimals that resides between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter Asthenosphere The layer of the mantle that lies 100 150 km and 350km deep the asthenosphere is relativity soft and can flow when acted on by force Atmosphere A layer of gases that surrounds a planet Bathymetry Variation in depth Big Bang theory A cataclysmic explosion that scientists suggest represents the formation of the universe before this event all matter and all energy were packed into one volumeless point Biosphere the region of the Earth and atmosphere inhabited by life this region stretches from a few km below the Earth s surface to a few km above Comet A ball of ice and dust probably remaining from the formation of the Solar System that orbits the sun Cosmology The study of the overall structure of the Universe Crust The rock that makes up the outermost layer of the Earth Cryosphere The ice components of the Earths system including glaciers snow sea ice and permafrost Crystal A single continuous piece of a mineral bounded by flat surfaces that formed naturally as the mineral grew Differentiation A process early in a planets history during which dense iron alloy melted and dank downward to form the core leaving less dense mantle behind Dipole A magnetic field with a north and south pole like that of a bar magnet Earthquake A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth Earth materials Any of the substances minerals rocks metals sediments soils composing the solid Earth Earth system The global interconnecting web of physical and biological phenomena involving the solid Earth the hydrosphere and the atmosphere Ecliptic The plane defined by a planets orbit Erosion The grinding away and removal of Earth s surfaces materials by moving water air or ice Expanding universe theory The theory that the whole universe must be expanding because galaxies in every direction seem to be moving away from us External energy Energy from the sun that drives components of the Earth System it contributes to the circulation and flow of the atmosphere and hydrosphere and serves a major role in driving erosion Galaxy An immense system of hundreds of billions of stars General Circulation Model A numerical calculation that simulates the flow of the atmosphere and resulting phenomena due to the changes in the atmospheric temperature and other parameters Geocentric universe concept An ancient Greek idea suggesting that the Earth sat motionless in the center of the universe while the stars and other plants and the sun orbited around it Geosphere the solid Earth from the surface to the center Geothermal energy heat and electricity produced by using the internal heat of the Earth Geothermal gradient The rate of change in temperature with depth Giant planet The four outer or Jovian planets in the Solar System which are significantly larger than the rest of the planets and consist largely of gas and or ice Groundwater Water that resides under the surface of the Earth mostly in pores and cracks of rock and sediment Heat Thermal energy resulting from the movement of molecules Heliocentric model An idea proposed by Greek philosophers around 250 B C E suggesting that all heavenly objects including Earth orbited the Sun Hydrosphere The Earth s water including surface water lakes rivers and oceans groundwater and liquid water in the atmosphere Internal energy Energy that comes from the Earth s internal heat it drives plate tectonics and therefore earthquakes volcanoes and mountain building Lithosphere The relatively rigid non flowable outer 100 to 150 km thick layer of Earth constituting the crust and the top part of the mantle Magnetic sphere The region inside the magnetic shield Magnetic field The region affected by the force emanating from a magnet Magnetosphere The region protects from the electrically charged particles of the solar winds by Earth s magnetic field Melt Molten liquid rock Metal A solid composed almost entirely of atoms of metallic elements it is generally opaque shiny smooth malleable and come conduct electricity Meteor A streak of bright glowing gas created as a meteoroid vaporizes in the atmosphere due to friction Meteorite A piece of rock or metal alloy that fell from space and landed on Earth Mineral A homogenous naturally occurring solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms ions or molecules in a lattice Most minerals are inorganic Moho The seismic velocity discontinuity that defines the boundary between the Earth s


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