GSU GEOL 1122K - Geology Study Guide Exam 1 (6 pages)

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Geology Study Guide Exam 1



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Geology Study Guide Exam 1

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Pages:
6
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Geol 1122k - Introductory Geosciences Ii
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Prelude Prelude definitions Core The dense iron rich center of Earth Crust The rock that makes up the outermost layer of Earth Earth System The global interconnecting web of physical and biological phenomena involving the solid Earth the hydrosphere and the atmosphere Geologic time scale A scale that describes the intervals of geological time Geologist The scientist who studies geology Geology The study of the Earth including our planets composition behavior and history Geologist addresses the fundamental questions such as the formation and composition of our planet the causes of earthquakes ice age the evolution of life They also address the practical problems such as how to keep the pollution out of groundwater how to find oil and minerals and how to avoid landslides Gravity The attractive force that one mass exerts on another the magnitude depends on the size of the objects and the distance between them Hypothesis An educated guess Lithosphere The relatively rigid non flowable outer 100 to 150 km thick layer of Earth constituting the crust and the top part of the mantle Mantle The thick layer of rock below the Earth s crust and above the core Plate One of about 20 distinct places of the relatively ridged lithosphere Science The use of observation experiment and calculation to explain how nature operates and scientists are people who study and try to understand natural phenomena Scientific Law Concise statements that completely describe a specific relationship or phenomena Scientific Method A sequence of steps for systematically analyzing problems in a way that leads to verified results Shatter cone Small cone shaped fractures formed by the shock of a meteorite impact Theory A scientific idea supported by an abundance of evidence that has passed many tests and failed none Theory of plate tectonics The theory that the outer layer of the Earth the lithosphere consists of separate plates that move with respect to one another Textbook 1 Geologist see how the world was made 2 See how the world continues to evolve 3 Finds Earth s resources 4 Protect against natural hazards 5 Predict what the future may hold Why should people study geology o It is one of the most practical subjects o It gives awareness to the planet o It shows the accomplishments and the consequences of human civilization in a broader context o The view of how the world changes A number of themes that appear o 1 Studying geology helps you understand physical science o 2 The earth has an internal structure core mantle and crust o 3 The outer layer of the Earth consists of moving plates The crusts with the upper part of the mantle forms a 100 150km thick semi ridged shell called the lithosphere Large cracks separate the shell into plates They move very slow The movement is known as the Theory of Plate Tectonics These plate movements yield earthquakes volcanoes and mountain ranges o 4 We can picture the Earth as a complex system with many interconnected realms This realms of materials and process is the Earth System o 5 The Earth is a planet o 6 The Earth is very old The Earth formed 4 54 billion years ago This is known as geologic time o 7 The geologic time scale divides earth into intervals The last 541 million years was the Phanerozoic Eon and all the time before that makes up Precambrian It can be divided into 3 intervals from oldest to youngest The Hadean The Archean and The Proterozoic Eons The Proterozoic Eons can be divided into 3 more intervals from oldest to youngest The Paleozoic The Mesozoic The Cenozoic Eras o 8 Internal and External processes drive geologic phenomena Internal processes are driven by heat inside of the Earth External processes are driven by energy from the sun o 9 Geologic phenomena affects society o 10 Physical aspects of the Earths System link to life processes o 11 The Earth has changed dramatically in many ways over geological time and continues to change o 12 Most resources we use are from geologic materials The scientific method o Science is the use of observation experiments and calculations to explain how nature operates and scientists are people who study and try to understand natural phenomena o The scientific method an idealized thought process for systematically analyzing scientific problems in a way that leads to verifiable results Recognize the problem Collecting data Propose a hypothesis A hypothesis is a possible explanation involving only natural processes that can explain observations Testing a hypothesis Theories are scientific ideas that are supported by an abundance of evidence they have passed many tests and have failed none Scientist are made more confident in the correctness of a theory Scientific laws concise statements that completely describes a specific relationship phenomenon o They do not provide and explanation o 13 Science comes from observations and people making scientific discoveries Prelude Class Lecture In a PowerPoint Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Definitions Accretionary disk The disk shaped body of gas ice and dust onto which matter falls it ultimately evolves into a solar system Asteroid One of the fragments of solid material left over from planet formation or produced by a collision of planetesimals that resides between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter Asthenosphere The layer of the mantle that lies 100 150 km and 350km deep the asthenosphere is relativity soft and can flow when acted on by force Atmosphere A layer of gases that surrounds a planet Bathymetry Variation in depth Big Bang theory A cataclysmic explosion that scientists suggest represents the formation of the universe before this event all matter and all energy were packed into one volumeless point Biosphere the region of the Earth and atmosphere inhabited by life this region stretches from a few km below the Earth s surface to a few km above Comet A ball of ice and dust probably remaining from the formation of the Solar System that orbits the sun Cosmology The study of the overall structure of the Universe Crust The rock that makes up the outermost layer of the Earth Cryosphere The ice components of the Earths system including glaciers snow sea ice and permafrost Crystal A single continuous piece of a mineral bounded by flat surfaces that formed naturally as the mineral grew Differentiation A process early in a planets history during which dense iron alloy melted and dank downward to form the core leaving less dense mantle behind Dipole A magnetic field with a north and south pole like that of a


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