CSU MIP 315A - lecture2 Bacteria-2-2 (79 pages)

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lecture2 Bacteria-2-2



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lecture2 Bacteria-2-2

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Pages:
79
School:
Colorado State University- Fort Collins
Course:
Mip 315a - Human and Animal Disease
Human and Animal Disease Documents
Unformatted text preview:

A Brief History Archaebacteria and Eubacteria from 3 8 billion years ago First Mammals 0 2 billion years ago First hominins 004 billion years ago Over 3 7 billion years later Australopithecus Deep Sea Vents What Bacteria Did with Their Head Start Over 1029 Total Organisms Greatest Mass Greatest Diversity Greatest Distribution Is now and always has been the age of bacteria Biologically the most successful living things on Earth One Carrier Roughly 100 000 tons 1013 Human 1013 Bacteria Objectives Lecture 2 Describe the nature and function of the normal flora Know the general characteristics of bacteria Explain how intracellular bacteria cause disease Describe how endotoxins cause shock Describe how exotoxins cause disease Explain the pathogenesis of salmonella Explain how antibacterial antibiotics work Normal Flora DNA surveys of the belly button inner elbows and elsewhere reveal diverse microbial communities Belly button has many more bacteria than between the toes 10 000 000 bacteria per square centimeter in skin punches compared to 10 000 in skin scrapes Representation of the microbial and molecular diversity using the Shannon index comparing samples based on their microbial 16S rRNA amplicon or molecular UPLC QTOF MS profiles Amina Bouslimani et al PNAS 2015 112 E2120 E2129 2015 by National Academy of Sciences Distribution Gut Flora Gut Flora and Behavior I Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster Gut Flora and Behavior II One experiment involved replacing the gut bacteria of anxious mice with bacteria from fearless mice The mice became less anxious more gregarious says Stephen Collins of McMaster University in Hamilton Ontario who led a team that conducted the research Lousy Sex Wood Louse The vast majority of of animals are insects 20 percent of all insects are infected with Wolbachia Isopod http www extension iastat e edu CropNews 2010 052 5hodgson htm All have given up sexual reproduction Bacteria and Individuality Identical twins may share appearances mannerisms even clothes but the microbes living in their guts are anything but the same Communities of bacteria in adult identical twins differ dramatically Bacterial Commerce Classification a Spherical Cocci Rod like Bacilli or Spiral Spirochetes in Shape b Gram negative gram positive Basic Bacterium Bacterial Pathogenesis Attachment to and Invasion of cells followed by cellular destruction or alteration of cellular physiology Bacteria Grow in Body Fluids e g Blood Septicemia or Bacteremia and Urine Bacteuria Production of Toxins Biofilms Gram Staining Gram Vs Gram Gram Negative Gram Positive http www rsc org chemistryworld 2013 09 antibiotics drugresistant bacteria Action of Endotoxins Inflammation Septic Shock Septic or Endotoxic Shock Exotoxins Soluble factors usually proteins secreted by living bacteria Bind to specific receptors on host cells and interfere with normal cell function E Coli 0157 H7 November 2009 Beef Recall recalled almost 546 000 pounds of fresh ground beef meatloaf and meatball mix to hamburger patties As of January 6 2010 December 2013 Multistate Outbreak of Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coliO157 H7 Infections Linked to Ready to Eat Salads Final Update Posted December 11 2013 3 00 PM ET 2014 Multistate Outbreak of Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli O121 Infections Linked to Raw Clover Sprouts Final Update Posted August 1 2014 2 15 PM ET 2916 CDC many states and the U S Food and Drug Administration FDA investigated a multistate outbreak of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli STEC infections 63 people infected with the outbreak strains of STEC O121 or STEC O26 were reported from 24 states 17 ill people were hospitalized One person developed hemolytic uremic syndrome a type of kidney failure No deaths were reported Epidemiologic laboratory and traceback evidence indicated that flour produced at a General Mills facility in Kansas City Missouri was the likely source of this outbreak E coli 0157H7 Pathogenesis E Coli 0157 H7 Shiga Toxin Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Action of Exotoxins Botox Tetox Clinical Manifestations Canine Tetanus Boutlinum Toxin It is the most acutely toxic substance known with a median lethal dose of about 1 ng kg meaning that a few hundred grams could theoretically kill every human on earth Botulism difficulty swallowing and speaking progressive weakness with paralysis nausea vomiting abdominal cramps Avian Botulism Avian Botulism Killing Ducks On Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge Possibly Due To Drought AP By By JEFF BARNARDPosted 08 29 2013 11 35 am EDT Staphylococcus aureus Gram Positive Organism Toxic Shock Syndrome Staph Aureus Toxins Immune Activation Normal Ag Versus Superantigen TSST1 a Superantigen TSST1 Salmonella 2008 U S Salmonella Outbreak A jalape o chile has been linked to the salmonella outbreak that was found in tomatoes Script The culprit long thought to be tomatoes of a national salmonella outbreak that has sickened more than a thousand people is most likely Chiles A single jalape o pepper grown in Mexico and processed in the US has tested positive for the same deadly strain that sent hundreds to the hospital and killed at least two Salmonella Recall Published January 25th 2010 Approximately 1 24 million pounds of peppercoated salami and other Italian sausage products have been recalled because they may be contaminated with a strain of salmonella linked to cases of food poisoning in 38 states May 2010 Miravalle Foods Inc a California company is recalling 37 318 lbs of Chiles distributed to customers in CA CO UT NC NE ID OR and NV because they have the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella August 2010 The recall affects eggs sold under the following brands Lucerne Albertson Mountain Dairy Ralph s Boomsma s Sunshine Hillandale Trafficanda Farm Fresh Shoreland Lund Dutch Farms and Kemps August 2012 An Ongoing Problem Salmonella 2015 Raw Sprouted Nut But ter Spreads Small Turtles Cucumbers Pork Raw Frozen Stuffed Chicken Entrees Live Poultry Frozen Raw Tuna Pet Crested Geckos Salmonella Transmission Fecal Oral Transmission Salmonellosis Pathogenesis Bacterial Products Inhibit Immune Response Inflam Bacterial Products Diarrhea Bacterial Manipulation of Host Response Effector molecules also stimulate inflammation essential for diarrhea but do not activate innate immunity Inflammation is essential for growth in intestine since without cannot acquire essential nutrients and cannot compete with normal flora So this host


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