CSU MIP 315A - Lecture 27 Skin (1) (66 pages)

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Lecture 27 Skin (1)



Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 4, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 63, 64, 65, 66 of actual document.

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Lecture 27 Skin (1)

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Pages:
66
School:
Colorado State University- Fort Collins
Course:
Mip 315a - Human and Animal Disease
Human and Animal Disease Documents
Unformatted text preview:

Objectives Lecture 27 Describe the basic elements of the skin Explain the role of sunlight in skin cancer Describe the basic mechanisms of infectious diseases of the skin Describe the etiology and pathogenesis of acne Explain the role of the immune system in eczema and urticaria Naked baby Elephant skin Rhino skin Old skin Skin micrograph Mites Skin Skin Cells and layers Keratinocytes Skin Melanocytes II Melanin and basal cells Langerhans cell SEM Langerhan s cells Lesions A lesion is a non specific term referring to abnormal tissue in the body It can be caused by any disease process including trauma physical chemical electrical infection neoplasm metabolic and autoimmune Manifestations of skin disorders rash Pruritus Pruritus is a common manifestation of dermatologic diseases including xerotic eczema atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis Sunburn Ultraviolet Light UV C 100 280 nm radiation is filtered out by ozone in the stratosphere Only a small amount reaches the earth s surface UV B 280 320 nm radiation poses a threat to life on earth even though some of it is filtered out by ozone in the stratosphere The cumulative exposure of UV B radiation may cause sunburn cataracts suppressed immune systems premature aging including wrinkles and skin discolorations as well as skin cancer UVA UVA also increases the damaging effects of UVB including skin cancer and cataracts an eye disorder characterized by a change in the structure of the crystalline lens that causes UVB UVB rays can directly damage skin cells DNA and are the main rays that cause sunburns They are also thought to cause most skin cancers Basal Cell Carcinomas Basal Cell Carcinomas are slow growing cancers that rarely metastasizes and is almost never fatal About 75 percent of skin cancers are basal cell carcinomas which usually develop on sun exposed areas like the head and neck Squamous cell Carcinomas Squamous Cell Carcinomas are less common In rare cases it can spread and be life threatening Accounting for one fifth of all skin cancers squamous cell carcinoma is directly related to sun exposure It occurs on the most sun exposed areas Melanoma Melanoma Is a Different Story Melanoma occurs in the pigment producing cells of the epidermis Melanoma can be deadly but it is often curable if caught early It can occur anywhere not just in sun exposed skin About 70 percent of melanoma cases develop in normal skin while only 30 percent develop in moles It can occur anytime and is not strongly associated with lifetime accumulation of sun exposure Some experts believe melanoma Adequate Sunburn protection Infectious Diseases Fungal Bacterial Superficial mycoses Staphylococci and Streptococci Viral Herpes Microsporum canis Tinea corporis staphylococci Impetigo Necrotizing fasciitis II Etiology and Pathogenesis Group A beta hemolytic streptococci and others including staph and clostridia Pathology due to production of bacterial exotoxins Approximately 25 mortality Risk Factors Have a weak immune system Have chronic health problems such as diabetes cancer or liver or kidney disease Have cuts in your skin including surgical wounds Recently had chickenpox or other viral infections that cause a rash Use steroid medicines which can lower the body s resistance to Herpes simplex type II Genital Herpes Symptoms Swollen glands in the groin Discharge from the vagina or penis Painful or difficult urination Fever Headache Muscle ache Female Male Acne Hair follicle pimple II III Acne vulgaris Acne culprit 1 Hormones In acne sufferers the sebaceous glands are overstimulated by androgens Acne culprit 2 Extra sebum When the sebaceous gland is stimulated by androgens it produces extra sebum The sebum mixes with common skin bacteria and dead skin cells that have been shed from the lining of the follicle While this process is normal the presence of extra sebum in the follicle increases the chances of clogging and acne Acne culprit 3 Bacteria The bacterium Propionibacterium acnes Once a follicle is plugged P acnes bacteria multiply Eczema II Spreading eczema Etiology The exact cause of eczema is not known It is activated by the immune system and is related to allergic reactions Contact with the external trigger allergen causes the skin to become inflamed The duration of the contact is not Risk factors for eczema include the following People with severe eczema usually also have hay fever and asthma Eczema is probably hereditary and often is found in other family members Eczema is not contagious Risk factors for an eczema flare include the following Illness Physical or mental stress Urticaria Type I hypersensitiviy Objectives Lecture 31 Know the basic elements of the skin Understand sunburn Understand the basic mechanisms of infectious diseases of the skin Know the etiology and pathogenesis of acne Know the pathogenesis of eczema Understand the immunology of urticaria


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