UB GLY 102 - Exam 3 StudyGuide (4 pages)

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Exam 3 StudyGuide



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Exam 3 StudyGuide

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Pages:
4
School:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Course:
Gly 102 - Global Env. Science
Global Env. Science Documents
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Glaciers Know the different types of glaciers Cirque small glaciers that occupy cirques small bowl shaped depressions at mountain tops valley when cirque glaciers flow down valley sometimes joining together to form long glaciers flowing through valleys calving any glacier that flows into a lake or ocean and breaks off calves Into icebergs piedmont any glacier that flows out of a valley And onto a flat area allowing the glacier terminus to spread out outlet glacier valley glaciers that drain ice caps or ice sheets Ice field Like an ice cap but more nunataks poking through really a lot of connected cirque and valley glaciers Know what glacier mass balance means Accumulation zone all added mass Mostly this is winter snowfall that doesn t melt the following summer Ablation zone all lost mass Mostly 1 ice melting and 2 calving of icebergs Equilibrium Line where they meet Know warm based versus cold based glaciers why the difference and how it relates to water Cold based Glaciers The bottom of the glacier is below 0 degrees C No water no sliding no erosion Glacier sides stay in place middle slides extends down middle Warm based Glaciers contain water at base of glacier Causes abrasion leading to striation sliding therefore erosion ALSO If the scratching agent is fine particles then this leads to glacial polish Glacier flow ice deformation and basal sliding how do these conditions relate to thermal regime warm vs cold based Evidence for sliding striations and polish 1 Internal Deformation cold based Move like silly putty self deforming after time temp change glacier develop bands called Ogives 1 per year 2 Sliding at Base the base slides on a thin film of water Sliding causes abrasion which leaves scratches called striations Know Glacier plumbing Supraglacial lake streams flowing underneath a glacier high pressure melting Moulin the hole that surface water falls into It is a pipe that carries the water to the glacier bed Subglacial streams Know a few specific glaciers Columbia Grinnell Jakobshav Columbia Alaska one of the fastest moving glaciers retreating since 1982 13 mill tons of ice break off everyday Chasing Ice movie Grinnell Montana between 1966 2005 it lost 40 of its acreage retreating Jakobshav West Greenland produces 10 of all greenland icebergs Studied for over 250 yrs The ice stream s speed up and near doubling of ice flow from land into the ocean has increased the rate of sea level rise by about 0 06 millimetres 0 0024 in per year Fastest flowing glacier in the world Up to 15 km yr 5 6 ft hour Sea Level Eustatic vs local sea level change Eustatic refers to change in global ocean reservoir Local refers to the sea lvl at any one location Causes of local sea level change to be different than global sea level change if enough ice melted to increase eustatic sea lvl by 1 ft local sea levels may not feel it instantly because ocean circulation currents may change tectonic plates subside etc Isostatic uplift raised beaches glaciers melting Isostatic uplift The uplift of Earth s crust after removal of an ice load Raised Beaches are evidence of local sea level rise Glaciers Melting Subsidence tectonics earthquakes Subsidence when soft sand compacts and land falls to lower lvl along with buildings and things on it Clicker Q Why are rates of sea level rise higher in New Orleans Local effects of subsidence combined with eustatic sea level rise History of sea level rise last ice age last century Clicker Q How much lower was sea level during the last ice age About 400 feet 120 m Last century GMSL increased 4 8in Causes of sea level rise thermal expansion glacier melt ocean currents floating ice Thermal Expansion when water heats up it expands Glacier Ice Melt NOT SEA ICE OR GLACIER ICE Ice sheets Ocean Currents Subsidence Predicting the future RCP scenarios expected sea level rise 2100 AD RCP Scenarios Representative Concentration Pathways 97 m expected sea level rise in 2100 AD RCP 8 5 Different countries CO2 emissions rank the top 5 1 China 2 USA 3 EU 4 India 5 Russia Clicker Q Where does the US currently rank in terms of CO2 emissions Number 2 Behind China Local Impacts Global warming impacts across US in Buffalo region New England Clicker Q The polar vortex is caused by the weakening of the winter jet stream FALSE Global Warming and Politics Hockey stick controversy The rate of modern warming is unprecedented Modern warming reversed natural cooling Clicker Q Arctic amplification decreases the equator pole temperature gradient the hiatus in global warming The CRU hack on personal emails of scientists with internal information used to disprove science legitimacy accusing scientists of examples of tactics used by global warming deniers Cherry picking information global 10yr periods of earth cooling that happens Geoengineering The deliberate and large scale intervention in the Earth s climatic system solar radiation management vs CO2 removal examples of each Solar Radiation Management Surface based Using pale colored roofing materials to change surface brightness or growing high albedo crops Troposphere based for example marine cloud brightening which would sprayfine sea water to whiten clouds and thus increase cloud reflectivity Space based space sunshade obstructing solar radiation with space based mirrors dust etc NEGATIVES 1 Expensive Grandiose 2 Hard to predict regional changes 3 Doesn t address other impacts of CO2 CO2 Removal Carbon capture storage store in ground and create enegry source Carbon air capture remove CO2 from air then put air back carbon capture pod gadget Carbon Farming afforestation reforestation instead of DEforestation grow a shit ton of trees they absorb CO2 remove trees so it won t decay and release CO2 again problem forest would need to be gigantic will take up agriculture space that s used for food need to actually grow tons of trees Ocean Fertilization including iron fertilization of oceans problem with ocean circulation CO2 could pop back up in centuries


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