IC LNGS 23200 - Ch 4 Semantics (25 pages)

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Ch 4 Semantics



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Ch 4 Semantics

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Pages:
25
School:
Ithaca College
Course:
Lngs 23200 - Introduction to Linguistics
Introduction to Linguistics Documents

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Chapter 4 The Meaning of Language CLICK ON THE VIDEO The Meaning of Language When you know a language you know WORDS and SENTENCES when a word or sentence is meaningful or meaningless compositionality when a word or sentence has two meanings ambiguity when two words have the same meaning synonymy what WORDS refer to in the real world or imagination Reference and whether a SENTENCE is true or false truth conditions What is Semantics Semantics is the study of the meaning of morphemes words phrases and sentences Lexical semantics the meaning of words and morphemes Phrasal or sentential semantics or compositional semantics the meaning of syntactic units larger than one word Pragmatics the linguistic and situational contextual meaning of language Why linguists posit semantic rules for our grammar To account for various epistemological phenomena Our knowledge of truth conditions how we determine the conditions for judging if something is true or false The cat barked at the man false What a sentence or word is referring to Reference The president spoke and he spoke well Barak Obama he What a sentence or word entails Lisa swam fast Lisa knows how to swim but Lisa swam fast Possible ambiguity I love Summer my friend Summer and the season summer Ability to determine the meaning of a limitless number of expressions or the I get it from the context competence The soldier s panegyric on the brutalities of war moved the audience Tautologies Contradictions Such sentences are inherently always true or false and don t depend on a given situation or context Tautologies always true Contradictions always false The Pope is an atheist When Compositionality Goes Awry Anomaly anomalous sentences Colorless green ideas sleep furiously I accidentally chased them These sentences are syntactically fine but contain semantic violations such as describing ideas as both colorless and green and qualifying chase with accidentally Other sentences are uninterpretable because they include nonsense words



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