UCSD ECON 139 - ECON 139 set 10 (9 pages)

Previewing pages 1, 2, 3 of 9 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

ECON 139 set 10



Previewing pages 1, 2, 3 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
View Full Document

ECON 139 set 10

8220 views


Lecture number:
10
Pages:
9
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of California, San Diego
Course:
Econ 139 - Labor Economics
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

ECON 139 SP 15 Antonovics 9 6 2 15 1 June 2nd 2015 Labor Mobility continuing Some add ons to the previous notes Page 1 of 9 Today s Lecture Page 2 of 9 Positive and Negative Selection PANEL A positive selection PANEL B negative selection Implications Immigrants from countries with egalitarian income distributions like Sweden are positively selected Immigrants from countries with high levels of inequality like Mexico are negatively selected Despite the fact that these prediction conform to our stereotypes about immigrants there is considerable evidence that immigrants from most countries are positively selected Maybe because moving costs are much higher for those with low levels of skill Migration Costs No one should migrate from the US to Sweden and everyone from Sweden should migrate from Sweden to the US But this picture assumes that migration costs are zero The red line depicts wages in the US net of migration costs Migration from Sweden to the US if Skill Sp Page 3 of 9 Immigrant Performance in the U S Labor Market How do immigrants perform in the U S Are immigrants more or less skilled than U S born workers How do immigrants perform over the course of their working life in the U S Cross Sectional Studies of AgeEarnings Profiles of Immigrants Suppose you have data from 1990 How do you calculate the age earnings profile of immigrants One possibility Calculate mean earnings in 1990 for Page 4 of 9 Cross Sectional Studies of Age Earnings Profiles of Immigrants 1 Immigrants initially earn less than US born workers 2 After 14 years immigrants earn more than US born worker Cohort Effects Recall This graph was constructed using earnings data from a single year The individuals who give you the data point for 20 year olds are not the same as the individuals who give you the data point for 65 year olds This is a problem if there is something fundamentally different about individuals who immigrate at different points in time In the following graph assume people arrive in the US at the age of 20 Page 5 of 9 Age Earnings Profiles Allowing for Cohort Effects The basic idea is to control for cohort effects by tracking individuals using data from many years For example suppose again that everyone immigrates at age 30 Use the 1950 Census to get information on the wages of 30 year old immigrants the 1960 Census to get information on the wages of 40 year old immigrants and the 1970 Census to get information on the wages of 50 year old immigrants Then plot the wages of immigrants who arrive in 1950 at different ages 30 40 and 50 Suggests that immigrants who arrived in the US in the 1950s ended up with a slight advantage over US born workers but this is not true for more recent immigrants The Performance of 2nd Generation Immigrants It is widely believed that the performance of the children of immigrants far surpasses the earnings of their parents This perception originated from looking at the earnings of different generations of immigrants using data from a particular point in time i e the 1970 Census Page 6 of 9 As you will see this leads to the same kind of cohort bias that we had to deal with when examining the performance of immigrants Relative Wages of Men Across Generations Looking at single year you see evidence that second generation immigrants far outperform their parents For example data from 2000 suggest that 2nd generation immigrants earn 26 percent 0 063 0 197 more than their parents Relative Wages of Men Across Generations PROBLEM its biologically unlikely that working age secondgeneration workers in 2000 are the children of working age first generation workers in 2000 For example if you re a first generation immigrant in 2000 and you re 45 years old then if you had a child at age 30 your child would be 15 years old in 2000 too young to probably even be in the labor market It s more likely that working age second generation immigrants in 2000 are the children of working age firstgeneration immigrants in 1970 For example if you re a 45 year old second generation immigrant in 2000 and you were born when your parents were 30 then your parents were 45 in 1970 Using this logic compare the earnings of first generation immigrants in 1970 to that of secondgeneration immigrants in 2000 The data now suggest that 2nd generation immigrants earn 4 9 percent 0 063 0 0 14 more than their parents far less than previous estimate Page 7 of 9 Earning mobility between first and second generation of Americans 1970 2000 China workers in 1970 earns less than US born worker but the wage of their children are higher than the predicted Sweden is the contrary Assessing the Impact of Immigration on the US Economy The Winners Immigrants Consumers of outputs Cheap labor causes the MC of production to fall so price will also fall Inputs that are gross complements with immigrant labor If the price of labor drops then the demand for gross complements will rise Immigration also increases the gross domestic product at least in the short run Cheaper input prices mean increased output Page 8 of 9 Assessing the Impact of Immigration on the US Economy The Losers Inputs that are gross substitutes for immigrant labor If the price of labor falls then the demand for gross substitutes will fall Evidence from the Mariel boatlift suggests that immigration does not have a large negative impact on the employment of US born workers Tax Payers could frustrate antipoverty efforts if immigrants have few labor market opportunities Assessing the Impact of Immigration on the US Economy Not all immigration is the same High skilled immigrants and low skilled immigrants will likely affect the U S economy differently Fiscal impact High skilled immigrants will likely earn more and pay more in taxes while low skilled immigrants will potentially make greater use of social services Impact on economic growth High skilled immigrants may be more likely to innovate leading to greater economic growth That is they could lead the PPC to shift out Peri et al 2013 Happily Ever After WSJ Class of 2015 Getting More and Better Jobs Research shows that the jobless rate at graduate affects longterm career prospects Currently current unemployment rate is below the average of the last 20 years Surveys indicate that employers plan to hire 10 percent more newly minted college graduates this year than last year The hot majors are engineering business computer science and accounting Page 9 of 9


View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view ECON 139 set 10 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view ECON 139 set 10 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?