Final Exam Study Guide(9 pages)
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Final Exam Study Guide
- Study Guide
- North Carolina State University
- Ch 220 - Introductory Organic Chemistry
Unformatted text preview:
CH 220 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Recognize and be able to explain the difference between ionic and covalent bonds. Be able to draw Lewis structures for compounds containing C, N, O, H, F, Cl, Br, and I. Be able to explain the concept of hybridization, and recognize the type of hybridization in a given carbon center and the number of hybrid orbitals in a given structure. Be able to explain what a polar covalent bond is, and be able to determine the direction of expected polarity for a given molecule. Be able to identify constitutional (or structural isomers). Be able to draw extended, condensed, and bond-line structures of alkanes and cycloalkanes. Be able to recognize basic functional groups (all the functional groups in the worksheet I sent you). Using IUPAC rules, be able to name alkanes, haloalkanes, and cycloalkanes. Be able to recognize and draw cis- and trans- isomers in disubstituted small ring systems (cycloalkane with two substituents). Be able to draw and identify axial and equatorial substituents in cyclohexane and recognize the lower energy conformers in systems with more than one substituent. Recognize alkenes and cycloalkenes and be able to name them using IUPAC nomenclature. Recognize primary, secondary, and tertiary carbons. Be able to name alkenes using the E/Z system o Draw a line down the double bond and assess which of the bonds has the element with the highest atomic weight attached o Both on “zee zame zide” Be able to name alkynes o Any organic compound with a C-C triple bond o Same naming conventions as alkenes, but using a ‘-yne’ suffix Be able to apply Markovnikov’s rule to the reactions of alkenes o Hydrohalogenation and Hydration use follow Markovnikov’s rule – the Hydrogen will always bond to the carbon with the most Hydrogen neighbors Understand and be able to explain electrophilic addition reactions involving alkenes: o Addition of HX (hydrohalogenation) with mechanism Goes through a carbocation phase Markovnikov’s rule o Addition of water to make alcohols (as a reversible reaction) Needs heat (250C) and a catalyst (H3PO4 or H2SO4) Vapor reaction o Addition of halogens (Cl-Cl and Br-Br) with mechanism Cannot use F (too explosive) or I (not reactive enough) Has a triangular intermediate – the Br or Cl gains the charge o Addition of H2 Requires Pt, Pd, Ni or PtO2 and a solvent Reaction doesn’t happen in a solution, but rather on the face of the catalyst Always results in a Cis configuration o Oxidation reactions (in acid as well as base, skip the epoxidation reaction). Hydroxylation Adding of 2 x OH groups Has a Syn mechanism, resulting in a Cis configuration Needs a catalyst – KmnO4 Needs a base – NaOH Needs a solvent – H2O Results in a Vicinal Diol (neighboring OH) Oxidative cleavage Breaks a ...
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