Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study Guide

Study Guide 3: includes summary of lectures 16-23

Study Guide
University Of Connecticut
Psyc 1103 - General Psychology II (Enhanced)

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PSYCH 1103 1st Edition Exam #3 Study Guide Lectures: 16 – 23 Lecture 16 (April 7) Social Cognition What is social cognition and social comparison? What are some social comparison strategies? -Social cognition: study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors influence and are influenced by others  Mental processes that give rise to people’s interpretation of, and reactions to other people -Social comparison: evaluate many properties of oneself and compare them to others and reference to a group or a single person -Social comparison strategies:  Upward social comparison  Downward social comparison Describe self-schemas and what they can affect? How do they work with first impressions? -Help people organize and process information about themselves  Lots of overlap with self-concept  Schemas can affect memory, perception, problem solving  Help interpret incoming information when we have a first impression of someone Lecture 17 (April 9) Attribution What is attribution? What are the types of attribution? What three factors contribute to attribution and what theory are these factors based off of? What are the types of attribution errors? -Definition: the processes involved in explaining the behavior of others -Types of attribution: Internal attribution: cause resides within the person  External attribution: cause resides in environment -3 factors:  Consensus: degree to which other actors show the same behavior  Consistency: degree to which behavior of actor is the same over time and contexts  Distinctiveness: degree to which behavior of actor is specific to the event  Based off Kelley’s Attribution Theory -Attribution errors:  Fundamental attribution error: tendency to attribute behavior of others to internal factors  Ultimate attribution error: behaviors that result in positive outcomes are due to external attribution and behaviors that result in negative outcomes are due to internal attribution  Actor-observer effect: tend to make internal attributions to others and external attributions for self Attitudes Describe attitude and the three components of it? -Attitude: a tendency toward a particular cognitive, behavioral, or emotional reaction to a given object or event -Components:  Cognition  Emotion  Behavior What are the different ways to form an attitude? -Early learning  Explicit teaching  Modeling -Mere exposure -Operant conditioning -Classical conditioning What is the cognitive dissonance theory proposed by Leon Festinger? -People motivated to have internal consistency among their beliefs and behaviors Lecture 18 (April 14) What is Daryl Bem’s self-perception theory? -People don’t have well-formed attitudes about many situations -If they act before consolidating an attitude, they reflect on that action to help establish the attitude

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