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CH 220 1st Edition Exam # 3 Study Guide Chapter 5  Recognize aromatic compounds and be able to name them using current IUPAC nomenclature. o Monosubstituents – put name of substituent in front of Benzene o Common names (make sure these are on the worksheet – can use in exam) These common names can be used as parent names in larger compounds: 2-bromotoluene  Understand and be able to predict the products of the following Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution reactions: The halogen can be Br2 or Cl2 Needs a catalyst – FeBr3 or FeCl3 Needs a catalyst – H2SO4 Needs heat Results in benzenesulfonic acid and H2O Uses an alkyl group attached to a Cl (has to be a Cl, no other halogen) The alkyl group could be any alkyl group Requires a catalyst – AlCl3 (Friedel Craft Catalyst) Requires heat It allows you to make a bond between two carbons, which has high commercial value Carbonyl group reacts with benzene ring using AlCl3 (Friedel Craft Catalyst) Requires heat of at least 80C The carbonyl group is very reactive and so ‘opens the door’ for the reaction to happen Known as functionalization – attaching a functional group in order to extend The carbonyl group can be attached to any alkyl group - small or large  Understand and be able to explain which groups are ortho/para directors and which groups are meta directors o When asked to name IUPAC, use #s for substituents, for common use o-, m-, p-  Be able to synthesize simple benzene compounds, including substituted benzoic acid derivatives Chapter 6  Be able to explain the concept of chirality and recognize chiral centers (asymmetric carbons, stereocenters) in a given compound.  Be able to recognize and differentiate enantiomers (stereoisomers that have the same formula, the same connectivity, but different orientation in space, R/S). Uses priority system, like EZ 1. Rank 4 different substituents by atomic number and build with model kit 2. Hold the lowest priority substituent facing away from you and look at the remaining 3 groups on a plane 3. If the priorities 1,2,3 are clockwise then it is designated R (right)

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