Exam 2 Study Guide

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CH 220 1st Edition Exam # 2 Study Guide  Be able to name alkenes using the E/Z system o Draw a line down the double bond and assess which of the bonds has the element with the highest atomic weight attached o Both on “zee zame zide”  Be able to name alkynes o Any organic compound with a C-C triple bond o Same naming conventions as alkenes, but using a ‘-yne’ suffix  Be able to apply Markovnikov’s rule to the reactions of alkenes o Hydrohalogenation and Hydration use follow Markovnikov’s rule – the Hydrogen will always bond to the carbon with the most Hydrogen neighbors  Understand and be able to explain electrophilic addition reactions involving alkenes: o Addition of HX (hydrohalogenation) with mechanism  Goes through a carbocation phase  Markovnikov’s rule o Addition of water to make alcohols (as a reversible reaction)  Needs heat (250C) and a catalyst (H3PO4 or H2SO4)  Vapor reaction o Addition of halogens (Cl-Cl and Br-Br) with mechanism  Cannot use F (too explosive) or I (not reactive enough)  Has a triangular intermediate – the Br or Cl gains the charge o Addition of H2  Requires Pt, Pd, Ni or PtO2 and a solvent  Reaction doesn’t happen in a solution, but rather on the face of the catalyst  Always results in a Cis configuration o Oxidation reactions (in acid as well as base, skip the epoxidation reaction).  Hydroxylation  Adding of 2 x OH groups  Has a Syn mechanism, resulting in a Cis configuration  Needs a catalyst – KmnO4  Needs a base – NaOH  Needs a solvent – H2O  Results in a Vicinal Diol (neighboring OH)  Oxidative cleavage  Breaks a molecule into two pieces (or in the case of a cyclohexane, will break the ring and create a straight chain molecule)  Needs a catalyst – KmnO4

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