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CU Denver PBHL 2001 - Psychological Social Factors and Health Behavior

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PBHL 2001 1st Edition Lecture 6 Current LecturePsychological Social Factors and Health BehaviorLeading causes of death have changed since the 1900’s and 2012 as many causes of mortality then were due to diseases like pneumonia, tuberculosis, and etc. Today heart disease and cancer account for 50% of all deaths. The leading causes of death are tobacco, poor diet and lack of physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Most causes of death today are due to behavioral factors.Why do people engage in unhealthy behaviors? •Peer pressure•Workplace•Education•Stress•CostCommon Theories of Health Behavior Health Belief Method: Person’s belief about what they are trying to prevent and how their behavior has an effect. Susceptibility - How likely am I to get it?Severity - How bad is this really?Benefits/Barriers - Is there a great deal of benefits to the prevention? Or are there a great deal of barriers like cost?Social Cognitive Theory: Based in learning theory. In practice, only part of the model is typically used. Self-Efficacy - People may be more or less confident that they can engage in a behavior(Ex: Can I quit smoking? If I feel like I can’t, then I won’t try) These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Outcome Expectancy - Have a great deal of expectations (Ex: Quitting smoking will prevent me from lung cancer, but I may gain weight or lose my friendships)Interaction between person and environment.Reciprocal determinism - Person and environment influence each otherObservational learning - Learn by observing others actions and outcomesReinforcements can increase or decrease behavior Theory of Planned Behavior: Predicts intention to behave. Believed to be the best predictor of behavior.Attitude - Behavioral beliefs and evaluationsSubjective norms - Normative beliefs and motivation to comply Perceived control - Can I make the change? Transtheoretical Model: Behavioral change is a process, not an eventPrecontemplation - Not even thinking about the changeContemplation - Thinking about the changePreparation - Making a plan Action - Make the changeMaintenance - Maintain the change long term (don’t have to try anymore, it’s done)Commonalities Among All Models•Knowledge is necessary but not enough •Behavior is determined by attitude and perception•Expected outcomes (expectancies, benefits/barriers, behavioral beliefs)•Self efficacy/personal control•Social environment (normative beliefs, learning, benefits/barriers)These models focus on the person, not necessarily the population Health Influenced by Social Group MembershipInequities between people of different race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (income, education and occupational status)Illustrative Health Disparities in the U.S.•Non-Hispanic blacks have higher rates of premature death from stroke and coronary artery disease•Infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic blacks is more than double that for non-Hispanic whites•Homicide rates were 263% higher among males than females and 665% higher among non-Hispanic blacks than non-Hispanic whites•The motor vehicle-related death rate for men is 2.5 times higher than for women. American Indians/Alaska Natives have a rate 2.5 times higher than other races/ethnicitiesSocial Determinants of HealthCircumstance in which people are born, grow up, live, work and age, and the systems put in place to deal with illness. Shaped by:Economics - Income, wealth, employment Social Environments - Education, family structure, discrimination, health services, crime/violenceLifestyle and Behavior - Diet, tobacco, physical activity, drug/alcohol use, sexual activity Physical Environment - Air/water quality, housing, transportation networks, noiseSocial-Ecological ModelPolicy - Local/state/federal policies and regulationsCommunity - Local culture, natural and built environment Organizational - Schools, workplaces, churches Interpersonal - Family, friends, social network Individual - Genes, knowledge, attitudes,


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