New version page

SU EAR 110 - Minerals and Atomic Bonding

Type: Lecture Note
Pages: 2

This preview shows page 1 out of 2 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 2 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

EAR 110 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Previous Lecture:I. IntroductionII. MineralsIII. RocksIV. Crystalline structureV. Atomic scale of mineral cleavage Outline of Current Lecture:I. Understanding the Periodic TableII. Major Classes of Rock forming mineralsIII. Silicate mineralsIV. Nonsilicate mineralsV. Minerals in different parts of the earthVI. Model of an atomVII. Different kinds of bondsVIII. Properties of Water MoleculesChapter 4: Earth Materials ContinuedI. Understanding the Periodic Tablea. Letters abbreviations for names of elementsb. Number is the atomic number, or number of protonsi. Each element has unique atomic numberc. Color represents groupi. Main group, transition metals, noble gases etc.ii. Groups have similar properties (ex) noble gases don’t bond with other elements)d. Table is organized by electron shellsi. Rows reflect the number of electron shellsii. Columns are the number of electrons in the outer shellII. Major Classes of Rock Forming Mineralsa. Native – gold silver, copperb. Silicates – siliconc. Carbonates – carbond. Sulfides/sulfates – sulfure. Oxides – oxygenf. Halides – fluoride, chlorideIII. Silicate Mineralsa. Silica tetrahedron – one silicon atom bonded to 4 oxygen atomsb. Tetrahedra can bond together and with other elementsi. Case 1: tetrahedra bond to other elements, but not with each other (causes fracture in mineral)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.ii. Case 2: Single chains: tetrahedra bond to form a single, linear chain sharing oxygen atoms (example: pyroxene)iii. Case 3: Double chains: tetrahedra bond to form a double chain (ex: amphibole)iv. Case 4: Sheet silicates: tetrahedra bond into sheets, which may be weakly connected to one anotherv. Case 5: framework arrangement: tetrahedra bonded together and with other elements in 3D framework1. Corners are bonded to corners of other tetrahedra2. Cause conchoidal fracture3. Example: quartz, feldspar4. Very hard to break framework, thus these minerals are very strongIV. Nonsilicate Mineralsa. Carbonates – calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (MgCO3)b. Oxides – magnetite, hematitec. Sulfides – pyrite, galena (FeS), copper sulfide (CuFeS2)d. Halides – halite (NaCl)e. Sulfates – gypsumV. Minerals in different parts of the eartha. Average abundances in earth’s crust:i. 40% Oxygen, 26% silicon, 7.45% Aluminum, 4.2% Iron, 3.25% Calciumb. Average abundances of the entire earth:i. 34.6% Iron, 29.5% Oxygen, 15.2% Silicon, 12.7% Magnesium, 2.4% Nickelc. Average abundances of the universe:i. 92.4% Hydrogen, 7.4% HeliumVI. Model of an atoma. Most of the volume of an atom is the electron cloudi. Electrons occur in electron shells that can hold a specific number of electronsii. The outermost shell is called the valence shelliii. If an atom’s valence shell is not full, the atom is not stable and wants to bondb. Number of neutrons can vary (isotopes) but not the number of protons; otherwise, it is adifferent elementVII. Different Kinds of Bondsa. Covalent – sharing of electronsb. Ionic – donating electronsc. Metallic – free flow; why metals are so ductiled. Intermolecular forces – hydrogen bonding, Van der Waal’s forces (weak)e. Crystal structure and bonds make a differencei. Example: diamond and graphite – both made of pure carbon, but different structure and types of bonds makes one very strong and the other very sofVIII. Properties of Water Moleculesa. Two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atomb. Water molecules are polari. Why water can dissolve so many substances so wellii. Negative charge near oxygen, positive charge near hydrogen


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Minerals and Atomic Bonding and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Minerals and Atomic Bonding and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?