New version page

UCM COMM 3000 - Cinematography

Type: Lecture Note
Pages: 8

This preview shows page 1-2-3 out of 8 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 8 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

COMM 3000 1st Edition Lecture 3 Cinematography● Photography – “writing in light” Cinematography● Cinematography – “writing in movement” ● The process of cinematography includes: – setting up the camera and framing the shots – creating a lighting scheme – selection of cameras, lenses, and filters – integrating special effects The Director of Photography● Individual responsible for the cinematography – uses the camera and light to implements thedirector’s vision – works closely with director and productiondesigner ● Supervises the camera and lighting crew: – camera operators – assistant camera (first AC & second AC) – Steadicam operator – gaffers: lighting technicians – grips : handymen they ‘grip’ objects and carrythings around Framing the Shot● A shot is the uninterrupted run of the camera – the moment between when the camera starts &stops recording ● Framing refers the position of the camera – what will appear in the shot ● Framing is determined by: – camera distance – camera angle – camera level – camera movementCamera Distance● The names of shots refer to camera distance – the space between the camera and the subject● Shot types: – extreme long shot – long shot – medium long shot – medium shot – medium close-up – close-up – extreme close-up Long Shot (LS)● The subject is more prominent – the background still dominates the frame Medium Long Shot (MLS)● The subject is framed from the knees upMedium Shot (MS)● The subject is framed from the waist upMedium Close-Up● The subject is framed from the chest upClose-up (CU)● Just the head, hands, feet, etc appear in the frame.Extreme Close-up (XCU)● Only a small portion of the body appears in the frameD.W. Griffith“The father of film technique”– began directing in 1908Directed The Birth of a Nation in 1915Popularized the use of many film techniquesThe Close-up● Griffith directed actors differently. – to convey emotions using slight gestures and facial expressions – Griffith moved the camera closer to capture these actions The Extreme Long Shot● Griffith also placed the camera very far from the action – to film large-scale action scenes – gave the action an epic quality Camera Angle● High-angle shot – camera is positioned above the character – aimed downward – subject appears vulnerable or powerless ● Low-angle shot – camera is positioned below the subject – aimed upward – subject appears powerful or important Dutch Angle● The camera is titled – the framing is not level – often signifies a moment of imbalance – also referred to as canted framing Point-of-View Shot● Camera simulates a character’s field of vision – depicts the action through a character’s eyes – a subjective shot D.W. Griffith & the Point-of-view Shot● Griffith was among the first to use a point-of-view shot – there by popularizing its use Camera Movement● Mobile camerawork changes the distance, angle, level, duringthe shot. ● Types of camera movement ⁃ – pan – tilt – dolly – crane– Steadicam ⁃ – handheld Pan & Tilt● Pan– the horizontal swiveling of a camera on a fixed base● Tilt– the vertical swiveling of a camera on a fixed basedDolly Shot● A shot in which the entire camera moves on a wheeled platform. – enables the smooth movement of the camera Crane Shot● Shot made from a camera mounted on an elevating arm – the crane can be raised or lowered – the crane can also move through space The Advent of the Steadicam● A stabilizing camera mount – consisting of a shock-absorbing arm – attached to the operator’s body● Invented in 1975. ● Enabled a smooth shot – even over uneven surfaces The Long Take● A shot that continues for an unusually long period of time – generally a minute or more ● The average shot length is 4-6 seconds. – Before1960, the average shot length was 8-11seconds. ● Should not be confused with the long shot Lighting● Lighting refers to more than illumination. – Also refers to the use of shadow within the frame. ● An analysis of how light and shadow work together. ● Light and shadow are created by three sources of light (3 point lining) – key light (brightest light) – fill light (fills in the shadows created by the key light) – back light High-key Lighting● The lighting design that creates little contrast – reduces the presence and severity of shadows Lenses● Lenses allow filmmakers to shape the space of the story.– distort objects or characters – make a character stand out or blend in to the setting ● Types of lenses – normal lens (good human vision) – wide-angle lens – telephoto lens – zoomlensWide-Angle Lens● Exaggerates the frame’s depth – expands space between objects – objects in the foreground appear larger than they are – distorts straight lines, bulging them outward Telephoto Lens● Reduces the frame’s depth – compresses space between objects – the background and foreground seem squashed together Zoom Lens● Alters the size of the subject without changing the distance between thesubject and camera. – magnifies the subject – minimizes the subject ● The camera doesn’t necessary move. ● Permits filmmaker to change from wide-angle and telephoto lensesduring shooting. The Dolly ZoomTechnique achieved when the camera– dolly’s out while zooming in – dolly’s in while zooming out ● Often used to produce an unsettling effect ● First by Alfred Hitchcock in Vertigo (1953) Depth of Field● The distance in front of the camera that will appear in focus – a zone of sharp focus ● Depth of field varies by lens. – Wide-angle lenses have a wider depth of field. – Telephoto lenses have a shallower depth of field. Plane of Depth● Images are composed of three planes – foreground– middle-ground – background Deep-Space Composition● Technique in which figures are placed in all three planes – creates a sense of depth ● Pioneered by Gregg To land – The Long Voyage Home(1940) – Citizen Kane(1941) ● To land combined this technique with deep-focus cinematography – all three planes were in sharp focus The Rule of Thirds● The fundamental compositional “rule” – used by artists to


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Cinematography and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Cinematography and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?