New version page

UT ANT 326L - Prehistory of the Americas

Type: Lecture Note
Pages: 5

This preview shows page 1-2 out of 5 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 5 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Lecture 7Prehistory of the AmericasWhat was going on in the new world before European contact?Inca and Aztec empire had only come together 2 years before the Spanish conquest so they were still expanding and developingAmerican situationLong term trendsAs people came into Americas they went everywhereAdaptationAdapted to everywhere and every type of environmentSedentismSettled in villages or cities permanentlyFood productionMost everyone did thisDomesticating plants and animalsComplex societiesMany people developed complex societies with urbanism, literacy, socio-political hierarchyMedium term developmentsRise of complex societiesEspecially in the Andes, Ecuador, Peru, ChileImmediate circumstancesAztec empire actively trying to conquer and gain a variety of peoplePeople being caught and forced to pay taxes were allies of the SpaniardsClovis PeopleMobile hunter-gatherersSpecialized economyPleistocene extinctions?All kinds of animals like saber tooth tigers and wooly mammoths that were becoming extinctSloths, beaversGone by the end of the ice agesLots of probable causesClimate changeDiseaseSpears showing upClovis spears to hunt large animals such as mammoths9500-9000 BCArchaic PeriodAdaptations to specific environmentsDesert, woodlands, tropicsWeaving giant baskets used for making bread (kasava)You cant eat it without removing toxinsSoaked in water for days and put into a strainer and have all the water and toxins taken out of itEmergence of food production in the new world came in the later archaic in several areasDeveloped corn/maizeFound its way down into south and central AmericaSeveral centers of domesticationCorn, beans, squashManioc (bread), yamsAmaranth, chenopodium, arrowrootPotatoes and beansAble to have larger, heartier, tastier kinds of foodDomesticated AnimalsCamelids (llamas, alpacas)Guinea pigsTurkeysDogsAgoutis/rodentsCaribbean delicacyWolves and turned them into domesticated dogsEmergence of complex societiesOccurred in the same region that food production developedMesoamericaSouth AmericaCentral AmericaHave life cyclesCycles of complexity in the AmericasLong term patterns similar to the Old worldRise, fall, rebirthWhat brings on the collapse of civilizations?Maya observatoryChichen ItzaMany of the cities were burned or abandonedElite overexploitationEnvironmental overshootDroughtConquestRadical simplificationMesoAmericaInclude valley of Mexico until Panama areaOlmecDown on the coastEstablished some of the dominant themes in Mesoamerican civilizationMounds, ceremonial centersElite with religious legitimacyLowlands iconography of powerSeries of symbols of powerJaguarsFeathers in your hatReligious motifsTransformation and possessionCeremonialismJade masksPart human and part jaguarCeremonial centersMounds, stone, lots of modification of the landscapeMayaContemporaryPainted in marvelous colors like blue and redCenters of lots of ritual activity and dancingTemples were very steep and had big super structures on top made of woodMulti-story buildingsStilas that were carved commemorating events of kingsTeotihuacanNorth/south orientationPyramid of the moon, street of the dead, elite buildings, huge pyramidsEach new king would come in and build temple moundsBuilt incrementally over 600 yearsFirst huge urban center and the largest in MesoamericaVery central place of central MexicoMulti-ethnic centerMarket center for satellite producing villagesLots of smaller villages around it and roads coming inPolitical and military power120,000 peopleContemporaryAztecsANT 326 1st Edition Lecture 7 Prehistory of the Americas What was going on in the new world before European contact? Inca and Aztec empire had only come together 2 years before the Spanish conquest so they were still expanding and developing American situation- Long term trendso As people came into Americas they went everywhereo Adaptation Adapted to everywhere and every type of environmento Sedentism Settled in villages or cities permanentlyo Food production Most everyone did this Domesticating plants and animals o Complex societies Many people developed complex societies with urbanism, literacy, socio-political hierarchy- Medium term developmentso Rise of complex societies Especially in the Andes, Ecuador, Peru, Chile- Immediate circumstanceso Aztec empire actively trying to conquer and gain a variety of peopleo People being caught and forced to pay taxes were allies of theSpaniards Clovis People- Mobile hunter-gatherers- Specialized economy- Pleistocene extinctions?- All kinds of animals like saber tooth tigers and wooly mammoths that were becoming extinct- Sloths, beavers- Gone by the end of the ice ages- Lots of probable causes- Climate change- Disease- Spears showing up- Clovis spears to hunt large animals such as mammoths- 9500-9000 BC Archaic Period- Adaptations to specific environments- Desert, woodlands, tropics- Weaving giant baskets used for making bread (kasava)o You cant eat it without removing toxins- Soaked in water for days and put into a strainer and have all the water and toxins taken out of it- Emergence of food production in the new world came in the later archaic in several areas- Developed corn/maize- Found its way down into south and central America Several centers of domestication- Corn, beans, squash- Manioc (bread), yams- Amaranth, chenopodium, arrowroot- Potatoes and beans- Able to have larger, heartier, tastier kinds of food Domesticated Animals- Camelids (llamas, alpacas)- Guinea pigs- Turkeys- Dogs- Agoutis/rodentso Caribbean delicacy- Wolves and turned them into domesticated dogs Emergence of complex societies- Occurred in the same region that food production developed- Mesoamerica- South America- Central America- Have life cycles Cycles of complexity in the Americas- Long term patterns similar to the Old world- Rise, fall, rebirth What brings on the collapse of civilizations?- Maya observatoryo Chichen Itzao Many of the cities were burned or abandoned- Elite overexploitation- Environmental overshoot- Drought- Conquest- Radical simplification MesoAmerica- Include valley of Mexico until Panama area- Olmeco Down on the coasto Established some of the dominant themes in Mesoamerican civilizationo Mounds, ceremonial centerso Elite with religious legitimacyo Lowlands iconography of power Series of symbols of power Jaguars Feathers in your hato Religious motifs Transformation and possessiono Ceremonialism Jade masks


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Prehistory of the Americas and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Prehistory of the Americas and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?