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O-K-State ARCH 2003 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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ARCH 2003 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 – 7Lecture 1 (January 15)• Architecture is the art or practice of designing and constructing buildings• VITRUVIUS – Three Categories from his treatise of c. 20 B.C.: De architectura;- Firmitas – firmness: a building’s ability to stand up that is, its structural stability- Utilitas – commodity: a building’s accommodation of the activities for which it was designed that is its function- Venustas- delight: the aesthetic sense of a building, that is, its beauty• Paraline Drawings (also called Axonometric and Isometric)- Axonometric- a type of parallel projection used from creating a pictorial drawing of an object.- Isometric – visually represents three-dimensional objects in two dimensions.- Perspective Drawings – One-point perspectives, two-point perspectivesLecture 2 (January 20)• History vs. Prehistory- Historic Cultures – Have writing- Prehistoric have no writing• Ancient Egypt 1. Historical Periods- a. Old Kingdom 3100 B.C. – 2200 B.C.- Middle Kingdom 2100 B.C. – 1780 B.C.- New Kingdom (Empire) 1580 B.C – 1090 B.C.Lecture 3 (January 22)• Egyptian History- Imhotep• Step Pyramid - First recorded effort of an attempt of a pyramid• Imhotep’s Palace- Heb Sed – the first festival to be celebrated by the spirit of the king, Funerary Complex of King Zoser- South Palace - Identified with Upper Egypt- North Palace – Tourist are not allowed here, decorated with columns that the south side does not have.- Columns do not actually support anything, they are engaged columns or columns that are buried into the wall- Top of column referred to as the Capital- Columns resemble the papyrus plant blooming, “upside down bells” which also represent Lower Egypt- Columns stand for “art imitates nature”• Giza - Pyramids of Giza- 3 pyramids: belonged to the fourth dynasty of three Egyptian kings- Largest pyramid (oldest) – Khufu or Cheops (Greek)- Second pyramid belonged to Khafre (Chefren)- Last pyramid (smallest) belonged to Menkaure (Mykerinus)- Served as tombs for the Kings• “The Great Pyramid” - Khufu- Last standing of the 7 wonders of the world- Stood 470ft high, 767ft squared at bottom, estimated 3.2 million poundsof granite stone, outer veneer made of limestone (which was removed by the masons of Cairo)- Schematic Design included value temple, monetary temple, a causeway and great pyramid• What’s inside- Entrance at the center “arch like structure”- Picture portrayed as a section or an architectural drawing that displays the building as cut in half right down the middle- Khufu had three different burial chambers- Consisted of 3 chambers, 3 airshafts, queens chamber, grand galley – 150ft long width of a football field and 28ft high, casing, and subterranean chamber- Each horizontal layer of the Grand Galley sticks out a little more than thelayer before which is a structural technique called corbeled vault• Parts of the Temple- Pylon – Façade or front- Courtyard – Surrounded by walls, open space opened to the sky- Hypostyle - Opened ceiling surrounded by columns. Style mean columnsand Hypo means under, columns were placed into the ground- Sanctuary – set of rooms• Other Terms- Axis – indicator of symmetry, middle of open space- Symmetry – mirror image, “invisible line” that splits in half- Obelisk – spikey pointed statues or stones, highly symbolic- Basic Concept – posts = vertical, lintel = horizontal- Clerestory – the space on top is covered- Molding – decorated space, usually on top of wall and in linear form- Cornice – top of structure that sticks out in order to reflect water; gutter• Temple of Khons- Small scale temple- Unique because it had one of everything (pylon, hypostyle, courtyard, sanctuary)- Belonged to son of Karnak trinity, son of Amun- Each side had sloping walls and dips, niches, rows of flags, bright colors, edges decorated with molding, located next to Sphinx’s- Had battered walls or walls that have no edges but lean in from bottom up, to give impression of a mountainLecture 4 (January 27)• Doryphoros- Spear Bearer- Sculpture of Polykleitos – one of the best Greek sculptures of the classical era“Ideal” human body• Greek Parthenon (right)- Greatest work of Greek era, Temple was considered the most important and significant temple of this era , Sits on the hill, Acropolis, in the city of Athens- Started in 447 B.C. finished on 438 B.C.• Temple of Aphaea- Temple of the gods- Most of the excavation was done by German architects- Ancient Greek columns created a system of lentils and posts, lintel structures used for decoration IV. 3 Greek Columns• 3 Greek Orders- Orders – pattern that involve both vertical columns and horizontal beams- Orders represent different types of human beings- Doric Order- Represents a young man, or the youth, Constant, strong, stout, always proportionally the shortest- Ionic Order- Represent a mature woman, capital has a distinct decoration, Topped with a volute - a spiral curl characteristic, to representthe curlers in a woman’s hair- Corinthian Order -Represents a young maiden or virgin, Capital represent a plants beingpushed down by a basket with tiles on top of the basket• Three order Characteristics• Column- Base (absent in Greek Doric order) –- Bottom- Shaft- middle- Capital – top- Echinus – prominent circular molding supporting the abacus of Doric capital- Abacus – an oblong frame with rows of wires and grooves with beads- Volute – a spiral scroll characteristic of ionic capitals• ENTABLATURE- 1. Architrave- Bottom- Frieze -middle- Doric Frieze Only:- - Triglyph - a tablet with three vertical grooves- Metope – a square space between Triglyph- Cornice – top (gutter)Lecture 5 (January 29)• Greek Temples- Stylobate – top step of the floor of the temple, everything sits on Stylobate- Pteron- arrangement of columns that go around perimeter of building- Perpteral plan- specific arrangement of columns, two short sides, two long sides• Interior Spaces of Greek Temples- Pronaos- Front porch of the temple- Naos- the sanctuary of the temple, the place where the statue of the god or goddess of the temple is placed (usually towards the back)- Opisthodomos- rear porch, looks exactly like the front porch except It doesn’t have thesame function, you cannot go to the naos from this porch, a solid wall divides it from thenaos, considered a “false


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