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Mizzou PSYCH 1000 - Imaging Techniques

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Imaging Techniques (all correlational)1) MRI scansbrain/body scansjust structuremagnetic field used to produce static image of brain and tissuespro: excellent measure of brain structurecon: no information about activitythis can be fixed by….Functional MRI scans (fMRI)Measures blood flow indirectly by assessing changes in the blood oxygen levelPro: excellent measure of brain activity and structureCon: lag of time in recording signalBy the time the signal comes in, the brain will have already changed2) PET scansuses radioactive substances to produce activity related imagepro: good measure of activitycon: weak measures of structure; radioactivity in brain (can be dangerous, don’t know the side affects)Experimental TechniquesBrain activation/inactivationprecisely manipulate specific brain areaonly method that can provide cause and effect information1) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation(TMS): magnetic field manipulates brain activity in specific brain regionthrough the skullsurface of brainalso used to treat depression2) Direct brain stimulationWilder PenfieldStimulation during brain surgeryMapped functioning anatomyTouched part of brain and saw that movedOn the surface of the brain3) Intracranial Simulationelectrodes implanted inside brainactivation of specific brain regionsexperimental design4) deep brain stimulationused to treat some disordersinside brainex. Parkinson’s diseaseFunctions of the brain regions1) frontal lobe functionmotor cortexhelps you movefinal signal for motor activityBronca’saresSpeech productionOnly in left hemisphereMemoryEmotion; planning2) parietal lobe functionsomatosensory cortexsensation, touchfeedback from musclesspacial processdisordersneglect syndromedamage to the right parietal lobeignore the left side of their visual worldonly draw left side of a clock, eat left side of plate, ect.Not blind, but doesn’t pay attention to itPhantom LimbSensation that missing organ is still attached to body and is functioningOften associated with intense pain3) Temporal lobe functionauditory cortexsound informationWernicke’s areaSpeech comprehensionUnderstanding so words make senseLeft hemisphereHippocampus and memoryEmotion and aggressionDisorders: Capgras delusionWhen he/she sees loved person but claims that the person is an imposterLooks like mother, but is not herPicture to emotion is messed upPicture is there, emotion recognition is not4) Occipital lobe functionsvisual cortexconscious experience of seeingdisordersblind sightconsciously blind, but can walk, know what to avoidsome visual aspects are present but they don’t know italexiainability to readknows how to read and can see the letters but they are no longer able to actually readGender DifferencesIn general, women use both sides of the brain to process information where men only use oneSize: men tend to have larger brainsLanguage:Female: show bilateral organization for languageMale: show unilateral (left side)Complex problem solving:Female: use language-related brain regionsMale: use spacial-related brain regionsNeuroplasticitywe are born with a neural “blueprint” for functionswhat is something is missing during development?Some problems, but brain over time compensates for its missing partsHow does the brain change?Plasticity: a property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experiences, drugs, or injuryNeurogenesis: new neurons are produced in some brain regionsPSYCH 1000 1st Edition Lecture 7Previous Lecture Outlinea. hawthorn effectb. experimenter expectancyc. inferential statistics II. qualsi-experimental designsChapter ThreeI. Brain and BehaviorII. Cerebral hemispheres a. Cerebral cortexb. Corpus callosumIII. Functions of braina. Phrenology b. Scientific studiesc. Correlational studies Current Lecture OutlineIV. Imaging Techniques a. MRI Scansi. tMRIb. PET scans V. Experimental Techniquesa. Brain Activation/Inactivationi. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulationii. Direct Brain Stimulationiii. Intracranial Stimulationiv. Deep Brain StimulationVI. Functions of the brain regionsa. Frontal lobe functionb. Parietal lobe functionc. Temporal lobe functiond. Occipital lobe functionVII. Gender Differencesa. Sizeb. Languagec. Problem solvingVIII. Neuroplasticity a. Plasticity b. Neurogenesis Current Lecture Imaging Techniques (all correlational)- 1) MRI scanso brain/body scanso just structureo magnetic field used to produce static image of brain and tissueso pro: excellent measure of brain structureo con: no information about activity this can be fixed by….o Functional MRI scans (fMRI) Measures blood flow indirectly by assessing changes in the blood oxygen level Pro: excellent measure of brain activity and structure Con: lag of time in recording signal - By the time the signal comes in, the brain will have already changed- 2) PET scanso uses radioactive substances to produce activity related imageo pro: good measure of activityo con: weak measures of structure; radioactivity in brain (can be dangerous, don’t know the side affects) Experimental Techniques- Brain activation/inactivationo precisely manipulate specific brain areao only method that can provide cause and effect information- 1) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulationo (TMS): magnetic field manipulates brain activity in specific brain regiono through the skullo surface of braino also used to treat depression- 2) Direct brain stimulationo Wilder Penfieldo Stimulation during brain surgeryo Mapped functioning anatomy o Touched part of brain and saw that movedo On the surface of the brain- 3) Intracranial Simulationo electrodes implanted inside braino activation of specific brain regions experimental design- 4) deep brain stimulationo used to treat some disorderso inside braino ex. Parkinson’s disease Functions of the brain regions- 1) frontal lobe functiono motor cortex  helps you move final signal for motor activityo Bronca’sares Speech production Only in left hemisphere o Memory o Emotion; planning - 2) parietal lobe functiono somatosensory cortex sensation, touch feedback from muscles o spacial processo disorders neglect syndrome damage to the right parietal lobe ignore the left side of their visual world- only draw left side of a clock, eat left side ofplate, ect. Not blind, but doesn’t pay attention to it  Phantom Limb Sensation that missing organ is still attached to body and is functioning Often associated with intense pain- 3) Temporal lobe functiono


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