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UVM ANTH 024 - Lithic Analysis & Intro to Human Evolution and Earliest Ancestors

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ANTH 024 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture I. PaleoethnobotanyII. Paleoclimatology Outline of Current Lecture II. Lithic Analysis III. Earliest Ancestors & Evolution Current LectureI. Lithic Analysis a. Lithics: rocks i. Encompass broad variety of technologies humans made from stoneii. Arrowheads, flakes, grindstones, etc. iii. But not stone walls b. Flintknappingi. Archeologists create their own stone tools to better understand the process c. Use Wear Analysisi. Study tiny marks on the edges of instruments ii. See what it was used for/what it cut d. Refitting i. Can be done in caves where the rocks cut there are still in the caves ii. Put the pieces back together to see the process that was used to break them apart earlier iii. See how people behaved in ancient caves II. Earliest Ancestors a. The 19th century scientific community began to think that the human race was much older than the Bible said it wasb. Darwin provided the mechanism for explaining how ancient humans evolved intomodern ones c. People used to think that human evolution was a straight linei. The “missing link” would link apes to people 1. Led to hoaxes – Piltdown Man d. Taung Child i. Found by Raymond Dart in the rubble from an African mine ii. Names AustralopithecusThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.e. Modernization of Paleoanthropology i. Louis and Mary Leakey 1. Threw away old model of human evolution 2. Now it’s pictured like a branching tree with lots of dead endsf. Evolutioni. Mutations occur constantly ii. Some mutations are adaptive 1. Lead to greater fitness2. Greater fitness leads to more offspring 3. Those traits get passed down iii. Environment shapes evolution iv. Selection happens at the individual level g. Molecular clock i. Compare genomes of our species with those of our nearest relativeii. See where we split offh. 15 to 17 million years ago i. Sparse fossil record ii. No evidence of fully terrestrial primates iii. Climate cools and becomes arid 1. Primates had to adapt2. Had to travel longer distances to find food i. SahelanthropusTschaderisisi. 6.7 million years ago ii. Squished looking skull iii. May be human or ape iv. Small cranial capacity 1. Did not have a modern brain j. ArdipithecusRamidusi. 5.8 to 4.4 million years ago ii. Earliest known biped iii. Could move more efficiently k. Radiation i. 4 – 2 million years ago ii. Explosion of new species in Africaiii. Adapted to different environments l. Australopithecines i. Gracile and Robust ii. 4 – 2 million years ago iii. At least 6 different species m. Lucy: Australopithecus Afarensisi. 1974 in the Hadar region ii. Famous for how complete her skeleton wasiii. First evidence of a hominin that definitely walked uprightiv. Small brain, hands, and feet1. Physical attributes of modern humans developed before the cognitive v. Further finds of Australopithecus Afarensis1. 13 found together – “First Family” a. Not tall, max heigh of 5 feet b. Had adaptations for walking 2. Laetoli Footprintsa. 3.5 million years ago b. Series of footprints walking over a lake bed c. Already evolved most of the features for modern human walking n. Australopithecus Africanesi. Gracileii. Only in south Africaiii. Small body and small brain iv. Smaller canines o. Robust Australopithecines i. 3 – 1 million years ago ii. South and east Africa iii. Died out – competed with other homininsiv. Large sagittal crest 1. Strong facial muscles v. May have made tools p. Homo Hamilusi. About 2 million years ago ii. First homo species iii. Found near Oldowan tools 1. Most likely used/made them iv. Bigger brain q. Oldowan Industry i. Emerges 2.9-1.8 million years ago ii. Created tools by removing flakes from one end of a cobble iii. Used whatever materials were available iv. Not sophisticatedv. Used for opening animals r. Australopithecines– hunters?i. Raymond Dart said they were hunters like modern humans1. Killed animals and brought them back to their homesii. But – bones in caves often have animal teeth marks1. They probably scavenged carcasses that predators had killediii. Australopithecines were hunted by predators iv. Olduvai sites contain only mostly small animal remains 1. Didn’t hunt big gamev. Only 45% have marks from human butchery vi. Some have both animal teeth and human tool marks vii. So they probably scavenged mostly, and hunted some small


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