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UO CDS 455 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Example: Example of AssimilationExample of AccommodationCSD 455 1st Edition Exam 1 Study GuideTheories and Research Unit1. Describe the “scientific method” and name/define “theory”.- “A theory in science is an interrelated set of concepts that is used to explain a body of data and to make predictions”- Scientific Method/Study involves asking carefully specified questions based on current understandings(theories); systematically gathering and analyzing all kindsof information (data) about the questions; modifying and improving explanatory theories based on te results of those analyses; and then asking new questions based on the improved theories2. For each theory presented in class, know the names of the theories and the theorists associated with them (i.e., be able to name the theorist when given the name of the theory and be able to name the theory when given the theorist)-3. Operant Conditioning (Pioneered by B.F Skinner)a. Know the difference between the purposes of reinforcement and punishmentb. Define and provide examples (not the examples presented in class) of how the following can be used in speech/language therapy (I expect new examples, not the ones presented in class):i. Positive reinforcement: Strengthens a behavior through the addition of a new stimuli.ii. Negative reinforcement: Strengthens a behavior through the disappearance of a stimuli. iii. Presentation punishment: Appearance of punishment after the behavior. (Punishers can be presented or removed)iv. Removal punishment: Behavior is suppressed and stimulus removed or withheld. (Punishers can be presented or removed)c. Describe the limitations of operant conditioning: The limitations/consequences can reinforce or punish.4. Social Learning Theory (Pioneered by Albert Bandura)a. Name/define the following: - vicarious learning: Learning by observing others.- enactive learning: Learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions, which provide information.- self-efficacy: One’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in specific situations. One’s sense of self-efficacy can play a major role in how one approaches goals, tasks, and challenges.b. Bandura says that people can learn behaviors, but not exhibit them. Why? Whatmight cause one person to exhibit a behavior and not another person? Be able to provide multiple examples justifying this belief (your examples should be different from the ones presented in class).- Even if a behavior is learned it might not be demonstrated because if there are personal consequences that discourage the behavior. A behavior might only be used when the situation is appropriate or there are incentives to perform it.- Bandura’s continued work focuses on cognitive factors such as belief, self perception, expectations.5. Information Processing Modela. Describe in detail how Information Process Modelists use the computer to describe how the brain functions. In your description, use and define the following terms: encoding, retrieving, and limited capacity.- They use a computer model to describe how people take in information and organize it.- Memory though executive controls of:-Encoding: Taking in information, store it and organize it-Retrieval: Your ability to retrieve it when you need it-Limited Capacity- Cognitive psychology compares the human mind to a computer, suggesting that we too are information processors and that it is possible and desirable to study the internal mental/meditational processes that liebetween the stimuli (in our environment) and the response we make.b. Describe how information is transferred from sensory memory into working memory through attention. Describe how attention problems (such as attention deficit disorder and autism) might influence working memory functioning.c. Define working memory and it’s relationship to long-term memory. - Working Memory is part of short-term memory. It’s an area of high-speedmemory used to store programs or date currently in use. It is a system for temporarily storing and managing the information required to carry out complex cognitive tasks such as learning, reasoning, and comprehension. Long term memory would be called the preconscious and unconscious. This information is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into WORKING MEMORY to be used when needed.d. Describe how information is stored in long-term memory and be able to name and give examples for elaborative rehearsal.- Through the process of association and rehearsal, the content of short term memory can become long term memory. There are two types of long term memory 1) Declaritive (explicit)memory which includes all of the memories that are available in consciousness such as specific events, etc. And 2)Procedural (implicit) memory involves memories of bodymovement and how to use objects in the environment. For example how to drive a car or use the computer.6. Constructivism (Pioneered by Jean Piaget)a. Name/define the terms: Biological maturation:Activity:Social transmission: and describe how each may be more/less influential in terms of cognitive development at different ages.b. Name/define Schema: Building blocks of knowledge Assimilation: Using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situationAccommodation: This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation. Be able to provide new examples to contrast assimilation/accommodation.c. Did Piaget believe that cognitive learning occurred during equilibrium or disequilibrium? Be able to name/define these terms with examples.- Piaget believed that Equilibrium occurs when a child’s schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, an unpleasantstate of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted intoexisting schema.- Equilibration is the driving force which moves development along.Example: Example of AssimilationA 2 year old child sees a man who is bald on top of his head and has long frizzy hair on the sides.To his father’s horror, the toddler shouts “Clown, clown” (Siegler et al., 2003).Example of AccommodationIn the “clown” incident, the boy’s father explained to his son that the man was not a clown and that even though his hair was like a clown’s, he wasn’t wearing a funny costume and wasn’t doing silly things to make people laugh.With this new knowledge, the boy was able to change his schema of “clown” and make this


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