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BU PSYC 220 - Invasives Cont.

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Lecture 5OUTLINE OF LAST LECTURE:- (Continuation of last lecture)- range of reaction- Examples of Human Inherited Diseaseso Dominant & recessive- Chromosome Abnormalities- Practice questions- Pregnant diagnostic techniquesOUTLINE OF CURRENT LECTURE:- (continuation of) Invasives- Infertilityo Causes: women & men- Controversial solutions- Infertility issues- Premature babiesCURRENT LECTURE:InvasivesPUBS: withdraw fetal blood from the umbilical cord with a needle (to see if the fetuswas exposed to harmful things during development)Fetascopy: camera to look at fetus, if ultrasound shows structural abnormality.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) (Embryo Screening): put egg&sperm together and create a zygote outside the body.  screen a cell to see if there’s any disorder. Families that have tay sach’s disease often do this.Cell-Free Fetal DNA- NONinvasive test- Sample of blood taken from pregnant woman after 10wks- Research suggests it can detect 99% of down syndrome pregnancies.- Used in high-risk pregnancies- At this pt. may not be covered by insuranceINFERTILITY- Failure to conceive after 12mo. Of trying- 8% of US couples are infertileo primary infertility never were able to conceive biological childo secondary infertilityThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. PSYC220 1st EditionLecture 5 have at least 1 biological child, but have trouble conceiving a 2nd child.- Is it related to gender?o 35-40% female partnero 35-40% male partnero 20% both parentso 10% unknownCauses:WOMEN- Indirectly delayed childbearing: more women postponing childbearing (careers > family, etc)o Climacteric: period in men&women where fertility declines in middle-adulthood.  Women: decrease in ovulation, unpredictable, farther apart, erratic.- By 48-50y.o most women stop ovulating- STD/STI: STI’s in women are often asymptomatic (have symptoms but they don’t show) o Chlamydia -> scarring of fallopian tubes -> damage reproductive tracts of women- Genetic: chromosome issues (ex: having all the chromosomes you need but they’re not in the right places), genetic factors that infl. whether you ovulate regularly or not, etc.- Environmental: o Cannot test drugs to see if they’re safe for pregnant women. Ethically/morally wrong: can’t test a group of pregnant women with drugs & without and try to see the damage on the fetus.o DES: given to women who were at high risk for spontaneous abortion. FLAW: Did NOT prevent spontaneous abortion. But still prescribed because the sales were high Little girls who were not sexually active were developing cervical cancer (linked to human papilloma STI). Because their mothers were DES exposed.- Malformed cervix Only 1/3 DES exposed women are successful in childbirth Carrying a son while on DES -> prone to testicular cancer- Weight gain: overweight -> less predictable ovulationo Underweight: need certain % body fat to ovulateo Long-term: women who don’t ovulate (ex: athletes, eating disorders)  Infertility (even when you have enough body fat)- Drug/Alcohol useThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. PSYC220 1st EditionLecture 5MEN:o STDo Genetic factorso Environmental factorso Drug/alcohol useWhat can you do?o Improve lifestyle: low stress, enough sleep, eating healthilyo Controversial solutions:o Fertility drugs: increase ovulation (ex: instead of releasing 1egg/mo, release 12)o Alternative fertilization (artificial)o In-vitro fertilization: 36% successfulo GIFT: Gamete-introfallopian-transfer: harvests sperm&eggs following fertility drugs, put the egg&sperm into fallopian tube, do not unite them outside the body aka “gamete” (egg&sperm), hoping that they’ll unite insideo ZIFT: Zygote-introfallopian-transfer: harvest eggs&sperm followingfertility drugs, unite outside body and put them into fallopian tubes instead of uterus. “zygote” placed in the fallopian tubeso ICSI: Intro-cytoplasmic-sperm-injection: using a pipet to place a sperm into the non-fertilied egg. INFERTILITY ISSUESo Cost: insurance only covers about 2 cycles because of the low success-rateo What to do with extra frozen zygotes?o Store them o Destroy themo Donate to a couple who can’t make their owno Donate them for researcho Surrogate motherhood: chance that surrogate wants to keep the child.o Relationship with surrogate post-birtho Restrictions on behavior: dieto Case where surrogate birthed a down syndrome child and the couple didn’t want it anymore o Multiple births: can happen naturally but if GIFT, ZIFT, ICSI are used it increases risko Selective terminationo Pre-maturityPremature Babieso Increased by 29% since 1981These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. PSYC220 1st EditionLecture 5o Account for 12% of all live birthso Can happen to any pregnant womano Leading killer of babies in their first month of lifeo Major cause of long-term health problemso Hospital charges for infants with principal diagnosis of prematurity avg $75,000These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. PSYC220 1st


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