New version page

UNCG KIN 386 - Exam 1 Study Guide

Documents in this Course
Load more

This preview shows page 1-2-21-22 out of 22 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 22 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

KIN 386 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Students, these are lectures 1-4. I did not include lectures 5 and 6 because those slides were not included in her slides that we needed to study. She noted that we should still go over them, but not to focus on them as much. I have highlighted the information that she said is important and my personal, extra notes from in class are in red. Good Luck!Lecture 1- Introduction to Motor DevelopmentCharacteristics of Motor Development- Involves change in movement behavior - Is sequential, age-related, continuous- Depends on underlying processes - motor development and motor control can be interchangeable sometimes- motor development is very sequential- aging adult and young children- Development is NOT age dependent.- development is dependent on the individual- changing all the time and is progressive- it is sequential- don't skip through it, can move through it fast or slowRelated Areas of Study - Motor Learning-relatively permanent gain in motor skill capability associated with practice or experience- Motor Control- the neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of movementRelated Terms - Physical growth- quantitative increase in size or body mass- Physical maturation- qualitative advance in biological makeup; cell, organ, or system advancement in biochemical composition- Aging- process occurring with passage of time, leading to loss of adaptability or full function and eventually to death- Aging studies are when you follow them over weeks, months, years, decades, etc. - Don’t need to know author names Defining Motor Development- Identify similarities and differences between motor development and the following phenomena o Motor learning o Motor controlo Physical growth and maturationConstraints- Limit or discourage certain movements- Permit or encourage other movements- “shape” movements- shaping the way we moveNewells’s Model of Constraints:- Circle of arrows- each constraint can interact with each other- Individual- some are structural (how body is made up) (ex- tall men could play basketball because they are tall) (positive constraint) and functional is more mental (motivation)- Examples:o Toddler taking the first step= individual functional o Injury to lower limb= individual functional changes their motivation and affects their interaction with the environmento Transition from walking to running= task constraintso Hard sand to soft sand= environmental constraints - Individual constraintso Inside the body (internal)o Structural constraints-related to the body’s structure Height Muscle masso Functional constraints- related to behavioral function  Attention motivation - Environmental Constraintso Outside of body- properties of the world around uso Global, not task specifico Physical- gravity, surfaceso Sociocultural- gender roles, cultural norms- Task constraintso External to the body  goal of task  rules guiding task performance  equipment fromo related specifically to tasks or skills from child's perspective  basketball- could either be tall(+) or short(-), country is not popular with basketball, don't understand the rules of the game  volleyball- don't have arms, don't have strong arms, no sand for inside volleyball, can’t serve  baseball- not having good hand-eye coordination  structural constraints- weight, height, muscle mass, strength  functional constraints- parental motivation, to fill the time, attention (will affect motivation), IQ, cognitive understanding of the situation  task constraints- rules and understanding, people around them (crowds), if equipment is too big (modify them to make them + constraints)  environmental constraints- noiseNaming Individual, Environmental, and Task Constraints- Typical Research Study Designso Longitudinal- an individual or group is observed over time. Study can require lengthy observations ( looking at same cohort of people, looking at them over years and decades)o Cross-sectional- individuals or groups of different ages are observed. Changed is inferred but not observedo Sequential or mixed longitudinal- sequential and mixed longitudinal: mini-longitudinal studies with overlapping ages. (same cohorts but have combined them to look at different things)- A Model of Sequential Research Designo each row is a short, longitudinal design o each column is a very small cross-sectional study o diagonal- comparing groups from different cohortsObserving Motor Development- whatconstraints change between these two clips?o coordination, motivation from child is ball (functional), motivation for adult is to complete sprint (functional)Extra constraint example practice - Dance: turning negative constraints into positives - individual structural- being weak, making yourself stronger, working hard to get more flexible - functional structural- doing it because parents want them to, dancing becomes something they love so they start to do it for fun - task constraints- performing in front of large crowds, learning to get over stage fright by performing more, getting better at techniques to be more confident in your dancing - environmental constraints- where you live depends on what kind of dance is dominant in that culture, may not be able to find a hip hop class somewhereLecture 2- Theoretical PerspectivesTheories of Motor Development- Maturational perspective- started in 60s when people were interested; based around genetic; the environment has little to do with our development- Information processing perspective- in the 80s; how the brain act as computers; how we use that to interact with the environment- Ecological perspective- constraint that we face (negative or positive)Maturational Perspective- Motor development driven by maturation of systems (neural system important)- Minimal influence of environment- Characteristics of motor developmento Quantitativeo Discontinuouso internal process; things you deal with allow you to progress;o driven by biological clockHistory of the Maturational Perspective- 1930s: Gesell, McGraw- Gesell- how biology and evolution come together; in orderly fashion, in sequence. As individuals we will pass through these at different rates . Example twins went through phases at different rates but still turned out same; McGraw- no big difference in the person who was being trained and the person who wasn't- Suggested invariable, genetically determined sequence of development (individuals can have unique timing)- Research:


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?