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SC HIST 109 - Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire

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HIST 109 1st Edition Lecture 7Last OutlineThe Portuguese Empire and the New WorldI. Portugal at the beginning of the 16th centuryII. African/Portuguese InteractionsIII. Portuguese Conquest of BrazilIV. Indigenous Population of Brazil at the time of ConquestV. Portuguese ColonizationVI. Brazilian Sugar PlantationsVII. Native American EnslavementVIII. African Slavery in BrazilCurrent OutlineSpanish Conquest of the Inca EmpireI. Poman de Ayala’s Chronicle of ConquestII. PizarroIII. Inca Empire on the Eve of ConquestIV. Massacre at CajamarcaV. Atahualpa Capture and DeathVI. Spanish Civil War in PeruVII. Cuzco UprisingVIII. Continuity/DiscontinuityCurrent NotesSpanish Conquest of the Inca EmpireMajor Points of Today’s Lecture:1. At the time of Pizarro’s arrival in Peru the Incaempire had been ravaged by a Civil War and Disease. Struggle between 2 brothers over who should rule.2. Divisions among the Spanish will be exploited by the Incas to wage a war of resistance for 40 yearsDivisions among both Inca and Spanish (fight between Spanish over how to fight the Incas)1572 is when last Inca ruler overthrownGumanPoman’s de Ayala Chronicle of Conquest (1615)- Writes a history of who the Inca’s were, are, and will be. Letter to the King of Spain - Goal to inform the King of who the Incas are and wants to be treated better- Ends up in archive in Copenhagen in 1925. 800 pages of text, 400 pages of drawings. Delcared UNESCO World Heritage ArtifactFrancisco Pizarro- Conquest of Panama- hears about Inca empire to South. - Creates a petition for war of conquest. Have to go through legal framework to receive land grants and funds by going to Spain- Diego Almagro is his partner. They jointly captain the conquest. He stays in Panama while Pizarro goes to Spain. Pizarro is authorized to wage war which begins the divide.- Pizarro represents new kind of conquistador. Was an illiterate pig farmer where Spaniardscould re make themselves and have a new life and join nobility if successfulInca Empire on the Eve of Conquest- Smallpox- ravaging the empire. - Death of Huayna Capac, 1524- Inca Civil War: Huascar vs Atahualpa. Fight over who should be the ruler and how to fight the smallpox- Pizarro heard about Inca empire because people talking about political division in South America.Pizarro’s Conquest- Leaves Panama in 1530.- African slaves and aides that are soldiers to be on the Spanish sideMassacre at Cajamarca- Pizarro does what Cortes did in Aztec people.- Meet 2 political delegations in open plaza. Pizarro pledes to help out in division between brothers and proposes to be ruler. Spanish close off entrances to plaza and capture Atahualpa and kill military advisers and make him prisoner.Atahualpa Capture and Death- Held prisoner for 4 months. - Atahualpa tries to buy his way out and save his life- Still ruling while in capture and has tributes brought to him which he then gives to Pizarro- Executed by PizarroManco Inca Crowned by Pizarro- Brother of Atahualpa was named Manco and Pizarro crowns him to be able to rule through him- Pizarro and Almagro split. Almagro sent to hunt down Huascar but gets lost. Several years go by and he returns and Inca empire is completely conqueredSpanish Civil War in Peru (1538-49)- Almagro vs. Pizarro (1538)- Almagro Jr. vs. Pizarro (1541). Pizarro killed by him.- Gonzalo Pizarro (brother of Pizarro) vs. Almagro Jr. (1542)- Gonzalo Pizarro vs. TheViceroy (1546). Viceroy kille- Spanish Military vs. Gonzalo Pizarro (1549)Inca resistance during the Spanish civil war: Cuzco uprising of 1536- Manco Inca rules from Vilcabamba in exile until 1572 up in mountains- Manco not defeated until 1570s- One of his wives is captured by Spanish and she is tortured. They send various body partsof her up to his camp. He takes bait, comes down and is eventually defeated.Continuity and Discontinuity in the Conquest of Peru- Ayllus and Village Control. Respected by Spanish in the villages as long as tribute was given- Pizarro marries daughter of Huayna Capac to marry into Inca royalty. Recognizes the children of the marriage.- The persistence of Kurakas. Gone by end of 16th century.- Mita system intensified. Labor draft system where an ayllu has different people working to provide tribute. Population loss though tribute amount stays the same. Summary- The spread of infectious disease and the Inca Civil war prior to the Spanish Conquest meant that Pizarro conquered a sick and divided Inca Empire- The Civil War among the Spanish aided the Inca’s fighting the conquistadors for 40 yearsin exile. Spain can’t claim til1580s-90s to say they have full


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