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CHEM 1110 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 2 - 9Lecture 2 (January 21)Chapter 1: Classification of Matter Define chemistry, matter, atom, element, molecule, and property.Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, and the changes that matter undergoes.Matter is the physical material of the universe (has mass and occupies space).Atoms are the building blocks of matter.Molecules are a combination of atoms joined together by chemical bonds.Property is any characteristic that lets us recognize and distinguish matter.What determines the properties of matter?Composition- what atomsStructure- how the atoms are connected The property of matter are separated into two categories. What are they?Macroscopic – properties and behavior we can see Submicroscopic – Properties and behavior we cannot see What is the difference between a pure substance and a mixture?A pure substance contains matter with distinct properties and constant composition. Can be either an element of a compound (a substance formed from two or more elements).A mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances, have relative amounts of components that vary, and each component retains its own properties.What is the difference between physical and chemical properties?Physical properties are observes without changing the identity or composition of a substance such as but not limited to: color, density, melting point, and boiling point.Chemical properties describe the way a substance may change or react to form other substances such as flammability. What is the difference between intensive and extensive properties?Intensive properties do not depend on an amount of a sample, and some can be used toidentify substances such as but not limited to: melting point, density, and temperature.Extensive properties depend of the amount of sample, such as mass and volume. Know the common decimal prefixes.Giga – G – 109Mega – M – 106Kilo – k – 103 Centi – c – 10-2Milli – m – 10-3Micro – mu – 10-6Nano – n – 10-9Pico – p – 10-12Lecture 3 & 4 (January 28 & 30) Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Explain the four postulates of Dalton’s Atomic Theory.1. All matter consists of tiny indivisible atoms 2. Atoms of an element are identical, but different from those of other elements 3. Atoms of one element cannot be converted into those of another element4. Compounds result from chemical combinations of different elements; atom ratio are integers. List and define the three classical laws.Law of Conservation of Mass – The total mass of materials after the reaction equals the mass before the reaction Law of Constant Composition – In a given compound, the relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant Law of Multiple Proportions – if A and B combine to form more than one compound, then the mass of A and B are small whole number ratios Who discovered electrons? Protons? Neutrons? Thomson. Rutherford. Chadwick. What are isotopes?Atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers.What is the group name on the periodic table for group 1A? 2A? 6A? 7A? 8A?Alkali metals. Alkaline earth metals. Chalcogens. Halogens. Noble Gases.What is the difference between a cation and an anion?A cation is a positive ion formed when electrons are lost. An anion is a negative ion formed when electrons are gained.What is an ionic compound? Molecular compound?An ionic compound is a compound that contains both positively and negatively charged ions. Nonmetal + metal A molecular compound contains a nonmetal and another nonmetal Lecture 5 & 6 (February 2 & 4) Chapter 3: Chemical Reactions and Reaction StoichiometryWho was considered the Father of Modern Chemistry?Antoine Lavoisier. What is stoichiometry?Stoichiometry is the quantitative study of the reactants and products of a chemical reactionWhat is a chemical equation?A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a balanced chemical reaction.Balance this equation: CH3NH2 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O + N24CH3NH2 + 9O2 -> 4CO2 + 10H2O + 2N2What type of reaction are these: A + B -> AB, AB -> A+ BCombination reaction, decomposition reaction.What is Avogadro’s number?6.022 x 1023Define limiting reaction and theoretical yield?Limiting reactions are reactants that make the least amount of product.Theoretical yield is the amount of product that can be made into a chemical reaction based on the limiting reaction.Lecture 7 & 8 (February 6 & 9) Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous SolutionsDefine Dissociation. The process of separating the individual ions by solvation What is a precipitate?A precipitate is an insoluble sold formed by a reaction in a solution What is the difference between a solvent and a solute?A solvent is a substance present in the greatest quality.A solute is the other substances, usually said to be dissolved in the solvent.What is the difference between oxidation and reduction?Oxidation is the loss of electrons and the gaining of oxygen.Reduction is the gain of electrons and the loss of oxygen. Name the type of reaction: A + BX -> AX + B, AX + BY -> AY +BX Single displacement reaction. Double displacement reaction. How do you find molarity (M)?Moles of solute Volume of solution in LExplain the Arrhenius Theory.Acids yield H+ in water.Bases yield OH- in water.Explain the Bronsted-Lowry Theory.Acids are the proton donor.Bases are the proton acceptor. Explain the difference between qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis.Qualitative analysis is what is in a sample while quantitative analysis is how much is in a


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