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Bio 181 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last LectureI. SpeciationII. Patterns of SpeciesIII. Patterns of SpeciationIV. Rates of SpeciesOutline of Current Lecture I. Evolution of BacteriaII. Human EvolutionIII. ExtinctionCurrent LectureI. Evolution of Bacteria A. Bacteria and antibiotic resistance1. due to increased use of antibiotics it can cause a resistance to some medications 2. each class of antibiotics works differentlya) they target bacterial cellular reactions3. viruses evolve quickly, they mutate and reproduce faster than humans a) it hard to formulate vaccine because strains of virus the vaccine is hard to matchII. Human EvolutionA. thought that a mutation which happened 50000 years ago caused more problem solving skills and cognition in Homo sapiens and allow the survive1. Hominid: consist of all modern and extinct great apesa) ex: modern human, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorilla and orangutans, plus all their immediate ancestors2. Hominin: modern humans, extinct human species, and all our immediate ancestorsa) bipedalism:key characteristic(1) freed hands(2) easier to carry food and tools(a) leading to hunting skills(3) allowed early humans to see over tall grass(4) reduced exposure to hot(5) increased exposure to cool wind(6) this lead to greater cooling system for the brain(7) bigger the brain more heat generated(8) so increasing height above ground could have caused bigger brain(9) efficient travel over long distanceb) members of genera Homo, Australopithecus, and Paranthropus3. new fossil discoveries have shown a close time when humans walked upright 4. splitting off from chimpanzee5. best guessed was at least 6 million years ago6. about 4 million years ago in Africa, lineage that led to humans began to separate from other primate lineages7. Humans evolution is branched like a treea) one or two hominin species coexisting at the same point in time(1) some eventually go extinct and some giving rise to other speciesIII. extinction: inability to change/adapt causes the disappearance of speciesA. 99.9% of species are now extinctB. they have been five major mass extinction since life began on earth C. 70% of scientist believe we are in sixth extinctionD. causes of mass extinction1. massive volcanic eruptions2. massive land formation3. fall in sea level4. asteroid or comet impact5. sustained global cooling6. sustained global warmingE. extinction mainly quickensevolutionallows for new species to


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