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NIU PSYC 316 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYC 316 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 12Lecture 1 (January 12): SyllabusLecture 2 (January 14): Introduction to Abnormal Psychology What is Abnormal Psychology?- The scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioningWhat is Abnormal?- Many definitions have been proposed, but none have won total acceptanceCharacteristics of Abnormal: “The Four Ds”1. Deviance – Different, extreme, unusual, perhaps even bizarre (apart from the cultural norm)2. Distress – Unpleasant and upsetting to the person3. Dysfunction – Interfering with the person’s ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way4. Danger – Posing risk of harm to self or othersCharacteristics of ALL psychopathology:- Cannot confirm definitively the presence of a mental disorder (No definitive tests)Example: Can’t look at a brain and confirm depressionDisorders are based on a set of behavioral and emotional symptoms, which can occur for any number of reasonsCharacteristics of MOST psychopathology:- Recurrent- typically returns without treatment- Persistent – without treatment, symptoms will last for years- Responsive to psychotherapy- Multiple predictors- not just oneCharacteristics of SOME psychopathology:- Fleeting and will go away on its own- Not amenable to current treatments Ex: Antisocial personality disorder- More specifically linked to genetics and/or biology (at this point…)Ex: Schizophrenia, Autism spectrum disorders, Bipolar disorderTreatment of Psychopathology Treatment: Systematic procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior through a variety of methodsConflict and confusion exists do to the lack of agreement about goals/aims, successful outcome,and failure.History of psychological treatment:- Ancient views-Evil spirits cause pathology and are exorcised (or trephinated) from the body- Greek and Roman views-Hippocrates and the four fluids/humors that need physical alteration- Europe in the Middle Ages- back to Demons!-Religious relief, conflicts between good and evil- Renaissance -Pushes against demonology -The brain can get sick as well-More humane and compassionate attitudes toward mental illness-Asylums are born (the good and the bad)- Reform & Moral Treatment (19th century)-Even greater emphasis on humane treatment-A reversal of Reform in 1900s due to:o Little money, Poor recovery rates; Stigma/prejudiceo Long-term inpatient care becomes common- Somatogenic and Psychogenic perspectives emerge• Somatogenic View that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes Though “popular,” treatments (e.g., lobotomy, tooth extraction, andhydrotherapy) were very ineffective until medications in the later half of the century• Psychogenic View that chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological Freud and the birth of outpatient therapy Was not really followed until the studies of hypnotism Widely accepted by early 20th centuryCurrent trends:People with severe disturbances are cared for with- Psychotropic medications: drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of medical dysfunctionEx: Antipsychotics, anti-depressants, and antianxiety - Deinstitutionalization: releasing patients from public mental hospitalso Outpatient is now primary mode Treatment of choice: Disorder-specific treatmentso Inpatient hospitalization: When it occurs, is usually very brief and followed up with outpatient and medsPeople with less severe disturbances are cared for with- Private psychotherapist: arrangement where a person directly pays psychotherapist for services.Note: very expensive and only wealthy could afford until insurance plans expanded coverage- Outpatient therapy Growing emphasis on preventing disorders and promoting mental healthPrevention: interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they develop Positive psychology: the study and enhancements of positive feelings, traits and abilitiesMulticultural Psychology: examines impact of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and thoughtsGrowing influence of insurance coverageToday dominant form- Managed Care Program: health care coverage where insurance companycontrols the nature, scope, and cost of medical/ psychological servicesTreatment options- Psychiatryo MDs that have completed a round and internship in psychiatryo Now it is rare for them to be thoroughly trained in psychotherapy- Clinical Psychologist (PhD)o Trained in psychotherapyo Most have completed research in the field- Clinical Psychologist (PsyD)o Trained in psychotherapyo Limited research experience- Social Workers and Mental Health Counselorso Masters level, typically can practiceo Typically more focused on communities, advocacy, etc.Clinical Researchers- Attempt to uncover universal principles that explain abnormality:• Search general or universal laws or truths• Rarely “see” clients professionallyThree predominant methods of clinical investigation:1.Case Study: Detailed account of a person’s life and psychological problemsLimitations: Biased by the participant & observer, subjective and idiosyncratic, and limited generalizability2.Correlational Method: used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other• Typically one time point, large study samples, and use stats to test for differencesCo-relationships between factors:o + and – relationshipso Magnitude of the relationshipo No causal information• Forms: epidemiological study- measures incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a givenpopulation, longitudinal study- observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time3.Experimental Method: A variable is manipulated and its effect on another variable is observed- Independent variable = Manipulated variable (changed)- Dependent variable= Variable being observed - Confound = a variable that may also effect the dependent variableTo safeguard against confounds: Control groups, Random assignment, Single or double blind designLecture 3 (January 16): MovieLecture 4 (January 21): MovieLecture 5 (January 23): MovieLecture 6 (January 26): Models of Abnormality Model/Paradigm—Set of basic assumptions and concepts; guidelines for investigation; influences scientists’ observations and explanations of events; determines clinicians treatment plan6 models are most commonly used:1. Biological:


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